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Republic of Senegal

République du Sénégal  (French)
Flag of Senegal
Motto: 
Anthem: 
Location of  Senegal  (dark blue)– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)– in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of  Senegal  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Dakar
Official languagesFrench
Ethnic groups
(0.4em)
43.3% Wolof
23.8% Fula
14.7% Serer
3.7% Jola
3.0% Mandinka
1.1% Soninke
1.0% European / Lebanese
9.4% others
Demonym(s)Senegalese
GovernmentSemi-presidential republic
• President
Macky Sall
Mohamed Dionne
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Independence
• from Francea
20 June 1960
• Withdrawal from
the Mali Federation
20 August 1960
Area
• Total
196,723 km2 (75,955 sq mi) (87th)
• Water (%)
2.1
Population
• 2011 estimate
12,855,153[1] (67th)
• 2002 census
9,967,299
• Density
65.3/km2 (169.1/sq mi) (134th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$25.152 billion[2]
• Per capita
$1,871[2]
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$14.461 billion[2]
• Per capita
$1,075[2]
Gini (1995)41.3
medium
HDI (2010)Increase 0.459
low · 155th
CurrencyCFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC
Driving sideright
Calling code+221
ISO 3166 codeSN
Internet TLD.sn

The Republic of Senegal (French République du Sénégal) is a nation in West Africa. The capital is Dakar.

Geography

In the north of Senegal is the Senegal River. To the north of the river is Mauritania. The nation borders Mali in the east, Guinea-Bissau in the south, and Guinea in the south-east. The Gambia is another country inside of Senegal, along the Gambia River. It is about 300 km long.

The north of Senegal is part of the Sahel. The highest mountain is 581 m high. The rainy season is between June and October. The average temperature on the coast is about 24° C, and inland about 27° C.

Regions:

  • Dakar
  • Diourbel
  • Fatick
  • Kaolack
  • Kolda
  • Louga
  • Matam
  • Saint-Louis
  • Tambacounda
  • Thiès
  • Ziguinchor

History

In the 15th century, Portuguese people came to Gorée Island off the coast of Dakar. In the 17th century, French people and Dutch people came there, too. These European countries used the island as a trading post in slaves from the mainland, controlled by the Muslim Wolof Empires. Slavery was later made illegal by France, but soon after, around 1850, the French started to conquer the Wolof. By 1902 Senegal was a part of the French colony French West Africa.

In January 1959, Senegal and the French Sudan became one to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on June 20, 1960, as a result of the independence and transfer of power agreement signed with France on April 4, 1960. This did not last long and Senegal and Mali broke apart into separate nations. Between 1982 and 1989 Senegal and The Gambia joined together to make Senegambia.

References

  1. (French) ANSD Retrieved 2013-3-02.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Senegal". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=36&pr.y=16&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=722&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  3. «La langue officielle de la République du Sénégal est le Français. Les langues nationales sont le Diola, le Malinké, le Pulaar, le Sérère, le Soninké, le Wolof et toute autre langue nationale qui sera codifiée.» Official website of the Senegalese government