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Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik (Estonian)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
|12 April 1917|
|24 February 1918|
|2 February 1920|
|20 August 1991|
|1 May 2004|
|45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi) (129thd)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
• 2011 census
|28/km2 (72.5/sq mi) (149th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)||▼ 30.6|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.882|
very high · 30th
|Currency||Euro (€) (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||EE|
Estonia i// (Estonian: Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik) is a small country in the Baltic Region of Northern Europe. The capital city is Tallinn. Estonia's neighbors are Sweden, Finland, Russia and Latvia. Its population is 1,332,893.
Estonia became independent from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany. It then became the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and lost its independence.
Estonia is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km).
Average elevation reaches only 50 metres (164 ft). The country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at 318 metres (1,043 ft).
Estonia has many forests, almost 50% of the land is covered with forests. The most common tree species are pine, spruce and birch. Estonia has over 1,400 lakes and over 2,000 islands. The longest rivers are Võhandu (162 km or 101 mi), Pärnu (144 km or 89 mi), and Põltsamaa (135 km or 84 mi).
Mammals in Estonia include the grey wolf, lynx, brown bear, red fox, badger, wild boar, moose, red deer, roe deer, beaver, otter, grey seal, and ringed seal. The critically endangered European mink has been successfully reintroduced to the island of Hiiumaa. The rare Siberian flying squirrel is present in east Estonia.
Over 300 bird species have been found in Estonia. These include the white-tailed eagle, lesser spotted eagle, golden eagle, western capercaillie, black and white stork, many species of owls, waders, geese and many others. The Barn swallow is the national bird of Estonia.
The Riigikogu is the name of the parliament in Estonia.
Since administrative reform in 2017, there are in total 79 local governments. This includes 15 towns and 64 rural municipalities. All municipalities have equal legal status and form part of a county, which is a state administrative unit.
The counties are:
- Harju County
- Hiiu County
- Ida-Viru County
- Jõgeva County
- Järva County
- Lääne County
- Lääne-Viru County
- Põlva County
- Pärnu County
- Rapla County
- Saare County
- Tartu County
- Valga County
- Viljandi County
- Võru County
The Estonian National Day is the Independence Day celebrated on 24 February. This is the day the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued. As of 2013[update], there are 12 public holidays and 12 national holidays celebrated each year.
The following are links to international rankings of Estonia.
|Freedom House Internet Freedom 2016||1||65|
|Environmental Performance Index 2016||8||180|
|Index of Economic Freedom 2017||6||180|
|Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index 2011–2012||11||187|
|State of World Liberty Index 2006||1||159|
|Human Development Index 2019||30||189|
|Corruption Perceptions Index 2016||22||176|
|TRACE Matrix business bribery risk 2016||3||199|
|Networked Readiness Index 2014||21||133|
|Ease of Doing Business Index 2017||12||190|
|State of The World's Children's Index 2012||10||165|
|State of The World's Women's Index 2012||18||165|
|World Freedom Index 2014||8||165|
|Legatum Prosperity Index 2019||21||149|
- "Rahvaarv rahvuse järgi, 1. jaanuar, aasta". https://www.stat.ee/34267.
- "Minifacts About Estonia 2017". https://www.stat.ee/publication-download-pdf?publication_id=44619. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Population at beginning of year". Statistics Estonia. 2020. https://www.stat.ee/stat-population-at-beginning-of-year.
- "Phc 2011 results". Statistics Estonia. 2011. http://www.stat.ee/phc2011. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Estonia". International Monetary Fund. 2019. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=69&pr.y=8&sy=2017&ey=2024&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=939&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". EU-SILC survey. Eurostat. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tessi190&plugin=1. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, 6th article
- Võrokesed ees, setod järel. postimees.ee (13 July 2012).
- "World Bank, World Development Indicators - Google Public Data Explorer". http://www.google.com/publicdata/explore?ds=wb-wdi&met=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:EST&dl=en&hl=en&q=population+of+estonia.
- Matthew Holehouse Estonia discovers it's actually larger after finding 800 new islands The Telegraph, 28 August 2015
- "The August coup and Estonian independence (1991)". http://www.estonica.org/en/The_August_coup_and_Estonian_independence_1991/.
- Hankewitz, Sten (26 January 2021). "Estonia becomes the only country in the world led by women". https://estonianworld.com/life/estonia-becomes-the-only-country-in-the-world-led-by-women/.
- "Estonian Republic". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110721204649/http://www.eesti.ee/eng/riik/eesti_vabariik/. Retrieved 21 July 2011. . Official website of the Republic of Estonia (in Estonian)
- Facts Archived 2 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine Estonian Timber
- "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey 2012 Buildings, roads and other artificial areas cover 5% of the EU ...and forests 40%". http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STAT-13-154_en.htm. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Taylor, Neil (2014). Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 6–7. .
- Taylor, Neil (2014). Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 4. .
- Taylor, Neil (2014). Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 7–8. .
- Spilling, Michael (2010). Estonia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 11. .
- "Nature conservation in Estonia". Estonian Environmental Board. 16 November 2017. https://www.keskkonnaamet.ee/en/news/nature-conservation-estonia. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- Pesti, Cerlin; Randma-Liiv, Tiina (April 2018). "Estonia". In Thijs, Nick; Hammerschmid, Gerhard. Public administration characteristics and performance in EU28. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. pp. 252–255. . . https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/c017bdc1-960e-11e8-8bc1-01aa75ed71a1/language-en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Household Download Index". http://www.netindex.com/. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "2019 Human Development Index Ranking | Human Development Reports". http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/2019-human-development-index-ranking.
- "Trace Matrix". Traceminternational.org. https://www.traceinternational.org/trace-matrix. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "Nutrition in the First 1,000 Days: State of the World's Mothers 2012". Savethechildren.org. http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/STATEOFTHEWORLDSMOTHERSREPORT2012.PDF. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- "World Freedom Index". http://www.worldfreedomindex.com. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
|Baltic Sea||Gulf of Finland||Russian Federation|
|Baltic Sea||Russian Federation|
|Gulf of Riga||Republic of Latvia||Russian Federation|