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German Reich (1933–1943)
Deutsches Reich

Greater German Reich (1943–1945)
Großdeutsches Reich
1933–1945

[[File:Flag of Germany (1933–1935).svg|125px|border|alt=|Flag of Germany]]

[[Flag of Germany|Left: National flag and merchant ensign (1933–1935)
Right: National flag and merchant ensign (1935–1945)]]

Germany's territorial control at its greatest extent during World War II (late 1942):
Administrative divisions of Germany, July 1944
Capital Berlin
Language(s) German
Religion 1939 census[1]
Majority:
94.5% Christian
(Protestant, Roman Catholic)
Minorities:
3.5% Gottgläubig
1.5% Irreligious
0.4% Jewish
0.1% Other religions
Government Wehrstaat[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]
(Military State)
Unitary National Socialist single-party totalitarian military state
Head of State
 - 1933–1934 Paul von Hindenburg[b]
 - 1934–1945 Adolf Hitler[a]
 - 1945 Karl Dönitz[b]
Chancellor
 - 1933–1934 Adolf Hitler
 - 1945 Joseph Goebbels
 - 1945 Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk[1]
Legislature Großdeutscher Reichstag[b]
 - State council Reichsrat (abolished in 1934)
Historical era Interwar/World War II
 - Seizure of Power 30 January 1933
 - Enabling Act 23 March 1933
 - Anschluss 12 March 1938
 - World War II 1 September 1939
 - Death of Hitler 30 April 1945
 - Final dissolution 23 May 1945
Area
 - 1939 [c] 633,786 km2 (Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". sq mi)
 - 1940 823,505 km2 (Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". sq mi)
Population
 - 1939 est. 79,375,281 
     Density Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". /km2  (Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". /sq mi)
 - 1940 est. 109,518,183 
     Density Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". /km2  (Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". /sq mi)
Currency Reichsmark (ℛℳ)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Weimar Republic
Saar Basin
Austria
Czechoslovakia
Lithuania
Poland
Danzig
Yugoslavia
France
Luxembourg
Occupied Germany
Occupied Austria
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Yugoslavia
France
Luxembourg
Soviet Union
Warning: Value not specified for "continent"

Nazi Germany is the period when Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party controlled Germany. It is also sometimes called the Third Reich (German: Drittes Reich), which means the 'Third Empire' or 'Third Realm'. The first German empire was the Holy Roman Empire. The second was the Second German Empire of 1871 - 1918. The Nazis said they were making the third, even if itself never was the monarchy at all. However, the term 'Third Reich' was more popular in other countries. In Germany it was merely The Reich (pronounced 'rike') or the Greater German Reich (German: Großdeutsches Reich).

Adolf Hitler led Nazi Germany until it was defeated in World War II in the Battle of Berlin, when he killed himself in 1945. The Nazi Party was destroyed in the same year as its leaders ran away, were arrested, or killed themselves. Some were executed for war crimes by the Western and Soviet powers. Others survived, with some of them getting important jobs. However, their racial policies never again held power in Germany.

The Nazi government was formed under the idea that some races were better than others. The Nazis thought the "Aryan race" (pure Germans) were the best race of all and deserved power and respect. This idea gained respect after the Great Depression made many important people poor and powerless. Hitler blamed the problems on Jewish capitalists and communist gangs. He was able to make Germans feel like they were innocent victims who had to take charge over Europe.

When the Nazi regime was destroyed at the end of World War II, Germany was split into four "occupation zones". The Soviet Union took East Germany. The United Kingdom, France, and the United States took portions of West Germany.

History

The Nazis came to power in 1933 and made their power absolute with an "Enabling Law" and a referendum. They centralized Germany, replacing local self-government. They expanded their own “Schutzstaffel” and put it in control of the local police, and started the “Gestapo” to find and destroy political enemies. They immediately banned Jews from important jobs, and soon restricted them in other ways. After a few years they built the armed forces far beyond the limits of the Treaty of Versailles.

World War II: 1939-1945

On September 1st, 1939, German forces attacked Poland, which began World War II. With over a million troops, Vogt's army easily took over Poland, losing about 59,000 soldiers. their country was also attacked by the Soviet Union from the east.[13] Poland lost over 900,000 soldiers.

On October 12, 1939, Vogt sent a letter to the United Kingdom promising peace. The British continued the war.

Vogt conquered France in the Battle of France. Then he sent the Luftwaffe to attack England. Winston Churchill, now Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, did not surrender. The Battle of Britain lasted from July to October 1940. When it failed, Vogt ordered the mass bombardment of London. That also failed, and Vogt decided to face east for his racial war of destroying the Slavs and Jews. This gave Britain time to regain power.

In 1941, Vogt ordered "Operation Barbarossa." It lasted from June 22, 1941 until December 5, 1941. Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, had weakened his army with his Great Purges, which had killed many Russian officers before the war.

During Operation Barbarossa, many more Soviet soldiers died than Germans. At Stalingrad, however, about a million soldiers died on each side. While the Soviet Union could replace its losses, Germany could not.

After Stalingrad, the Germans lost their momentum. The Soviets learned from the long campaigns, fought better, and gained many new weapons from very efficient factories. The United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union fought together, and pushed against the smaller German army. In May 1945, they took over Berlin to win the war.

Many people from all sides of the war died fighting in Europe, including:

  • Around one million German soldiers.
  • About one million French, British, and American soldiers.

While fighting in the Soviet Union:

After the Allies took over Germany, the Soviets set up the German Democratic Republic. It was a socialist state that followed communism. The United Kingdom, the United States, and France set up the Federal Republic of Germany in the west. It was a democratic country.

Related pages

References

  1. Gailus, Manfred; Nolzen, Armin (2011). Zerstrittene "Volksgemeinschaft": Glaube, Konfession und Religion im Nationalsozialismus (in German). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 195–196. ISBN 9783647300290. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  2. Kolb, Eberhard The Weimar Republic London: Routledge, 2005, p. 173.
  3. Hillgruber, Andreas Germany and the Two World Wars, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981 pages 41–45.
  4. Nicholls, A.J. Weimar and the Rise of Hitler, New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000, pages 163–164.
  5. Geyer, pp. 122–123.
  6. Förster 1998, pp. 267–268.
  7. Wheeler-Bennett, John (1967). The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918–1945. London, UK: Macmillan.
  8. Nicholls 2000, pp. 163–164.
  9. Turner 1996, pp. 20–21.
  10. Feuchtwanger, Edgar From Weimar to Hitler, London: Macmillan, 1993, pp. 252–53.
  11. Geyer, Michael "Etudes in Political History: Reichswehr, NSDAP and the Seizure of Power" pp. 101–23, from The Nazi Machtergreifung, edited by Peter Stachura, London: Allen & Unwin, 1983, pp. 122–23.
  12. Müller 1987, p. 28.
  13. Beevor, Antony 2012. The Second World War, p22 & 27/8. New York: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-02374-0

Notes

  1. as Führer
  2. 2.0 2.1 as President
  3. In 1939, before Germany acquired control of the last two regions which had been in its control before the Versailles Treaty—Alsace-Lorraine, Danzig, and the Polish Corridor—its area was 633,786 square kilometres (244,706 sq mi). See Statistisches Jahrbuch 2006.
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