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|Republic of Lithuania
|Motto: "Tautos jėga vienybėje"[source?]
"The strength of the nation lies in unity"
|Anthem: Tautiška giesmė
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2011)||83.9% Lithuanians,
3.8% others and unspecified
|-||Prime Minister||Andrius Kubilius|
|-||Seimas Speaker||Irena Degutienė|
|Independence from Russia and Germany (1918)|
|-||First mention of Lithuania||9 March 1009|
|-||Coronation of Mindaugas||6 July 1253|
|-||Personal union with Poland||2 February 1386|
|-||Creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth||1569|
|-||Partitions of the Commonwealth||1795|
|-||Independence declared||16 February 1918|
|-||1st and 2nd Soviet occupations||15 June 1940 and again 1944|
|-||Nazi German occupation||22 June 1941|
|-||Independence restored||11 March 1990|
|-||Total||65,200 km2 (123rd)
25,174 sq mi
|-||2011 estimate||3,203,857 (133rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|HDI (2011)|| 0.810
very high · 40th
|Currency||Lithuanian litas (Lt) (
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Date format||yyyy-mm-dd (CE)|
|Drives on the||right|
|1.||Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.|
The colors of the Lithuanian flag are yellow (at the top), for the sun, green (in the middle), for the fields, and red (at the bottom), for the blood of Lithuanians fighting for its independence.
Lithuania began to turn into a country in the 7th–9th centuries from Baltic nations group. The Balts, the ancestors of Lithuanians and Latvians, came to area between Nemunas, Daugava rivers and the Baltic Sea, from a supposed original homeland of the Proto-Indo-European languages. Many scientists think they came there sometime in the 3rd millennium BC.
The traditional date of the beginning of the country is 1236 when the Battle of Šiauliai (Battle of Sun) took place and was won by the Lithuanians.
Lithuania (at that time - The Grand Duchy of Lithuania) had made a Treaty with Poland in 1569. The country was taken over by the Russian Empire in 1795. It got back its independence on the February 16, 1918. It was taken over by Soviet Union in June 16, 1940, after Germany from 1941-1944 and then the Soviet Union from 1944-1990. Lithuania re-declared its independence on March 11, 1990. Currently Lithuania is an independent, semi-presidential, democratic republic.
Lithuania has been a member of NATO and the European Union since 2004.
Lithuania is a semi presidential republic, that restored its independence and democracy in 1990. Since then, very important reforms were made and Lithuania is now declared as a democratic state that grants the human rights.
The Constitution that was adopted in 1992 declares, that the leader of the country is the President, who must be elected to take his office. The elections are held each 5 years. If President broke their oath, they can be fired by the Parliament. The President also represents Lithuania and he is also a commander-in-chief.
The legislative power of Lithuania is Seimas, or the Parliament. There are 141 members of Seimas who are elected for 4-year-terms. Seimas passes the laws that must be executed by the Government, that is formed in Seimas and it must be accepted by the President. The Prime Minister is set and fired by the President.
The justice is under the power of the courts. The supreme court in Lithuania is the Constitutional Court.
Lithuania is divided into 10 counties, 60 municipalities and 500 elderates. The counties are:
- Alytus County
- Kaunas County
- Klaipėda County
- Marijampolė County
- Panevėžys County
- Šiauliai County
- Tauragė County
- Telšiai County
- Utena County
- Vilnius County
The county governor rules the county. He or she must be appointed by the central government. Municipalities are governed by the Municipal Councils that are elected for 4 year terms. The head of a municipality is the mayor. The elderates are governed by the elders. The elders are appointed by the municipal councils.
Lithuania is a country in northern Europe. Its neighbours are Poland in the south west, Russia (Kaliningrad) in west, Latvia in north and Belarus in the east. Lithuania borders the Baltic sea and 99 kilometres of it belong to Lithuania. The highest hill is Aukštojas (294 metres high), the largest lake is Drūkšiai Lake. 31 % of the land suitable for farms.
Lithuania is divided into 5 cultural regions according to their past and traditions:
- Mažoji Lietuva (Lithuania Minor)
- Žemaitija (Samogitia)
Extreme temperatures in Lithuania (°C)
Lithuania has a fast growing economy. It grew up to 7 % in the first quarter of 2008.
GDP per capita, based on purchasing power parity is estimated to be $19 730 in 2008. The nominal GDP per capita is estimated to be $14 213 at the same year. According to these numbers, Lithuanian per capita GDP reaches only 61% of EU average. However, it is impressive that only in 8 years, since 2000 it grew up from 30% of EU average.
Emigration still contains a problem. Acoording to the official data, emigration in 2006 was 30% lower than previous year, with 3 483 people leaving in four months.
About 80% of people in Lithuania are Lithuanians. There are large national minorities:
- The Poles, (6.3%), mainly live in Vilnius County, which was taken over by Poland in 1920.
- The Russians, (5.1%), mainly live in Vilnius County and Utena County, as workers at the Ignalina nuclear plant.
- The Belorussians, (1.1%), most of them live in Vilnius County.
Lithuanian is spoken by 82% of the people and it is the only official language. Polish is used mostly in Vilnius County where Polish politicians are elected to represent the Polish minority. The documents and street names must be in Lithuanian.
|City||Region||Population||Density* (/km²)||Area (km²)|
The nursery schools and the kindergartens are the first-level education forms. However, they are not compulsory. The children start attending the primary school at age 7, where educational programs last for 4 years; then they must start attending secondary school (5th to 10th grades). After finishing 8th or 10th grade, the student can continue learning at the high school or choose courses at the vocational college. The students who finish the high school can join colleges and universities. Higher education is free for the students whose annual median of grades is 8 or higher. The others have to pay 500 Litass per semester at least.
The higher education schools are universities and colleges. The main universities are:
- Vilnius university (the oldest univeresity in north east Europe, founded in 1579);
- University of Vytautas the Great, in Kaunas;
- The University of Technology of Gediminas, in Vilnius;
- The Klaipėda University.
Radio and Television
- Lietuvos Radijas (Public broadcaster)
- Radiocentras (TOP 40)
- M-1 (TOP 40)
- Pūkas 1 (Lithuanian pop)
- Kelyje (Pop)
- Žinių Radijas (up-to-date news)
The most popular TV stations are:
- Lietuvos televizija, LTV (Public Broadcaster)
- Tango TV
- MTV Lithuania
Printed Media and Internet
The oldest legal newspaper in Lithuania is the Polish Kurier Wilenski. It was first published in the 18th century and is now only popular with the Polish community. The biggest selling newspapers are:
- Lietuvos Rytas
- Kauno diena
- Lietuvos žinios
- Vakaro žinios
Internet news portals are very popular in Lithuania. They have the latest information and also let people make comments. The most popular Internet sites with news and information are:
Notes and references
- "Population by ethnicity 2009 year". DB1.stat.gov.lt. Statistics Lithuania. http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/selectvarval/saveselections.asp?MainTable=M3010215&PLanguage=1&TableStyle=&Buttons=&PXSId=3236&IQY=&TC=&ST=ST&rvar0=&rvar1=&rvar2=&rvar3=&rvar4=&rvar5=&rvar6=&rvar7=&rvar8=&rvar9=&rvar10=&rvar11=&rvar12=&rvar13=&rvar14=. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
-  – Lithuanian Constitutional Court
-  – Statistics Lithuania
- "Lithuania". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=946&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=43&pr.y=0. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- United Nations Geographical region and composition
- The official Tourism site in Lithuanian and English
- The site of the President's administration
- The site of Lithuanian Parliament
- The site of Government of Lithuania
- The Official site of Department of Statistics
- The official site of Vilnius Municipality
- The official site of Kaunas Municipality
- The official site of klaipėda Municipality