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Organisation des Nations Unies
Организация Объединённых Наций
Organización de las Naciones Unidas
|Motto: It's your world!|
New York City
|Membership||193 member states
2 observer states
|-||Deputy Secretary-General||Jan Eliasson|
|-||General Assembly President||Sam Kutesa|
|-||Security Council President|
|-||United Nations Charter signed||26 June 1945|
|-||Entry into force of Charter||24 October 1945|
The United Nations (U.N.) is an intergovernmental organisation established on 24 October 1945 to promote international cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations and the organisation was created following World War II to prevent another conflict. At the time it was founded, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. Most nations are members of the U.N. and send people to the headquarters to hold meetings and pass resolutions (make decisions) about global issues.
The goals of the United Nations are:
- to keep world peace
- to help countries get along
- to improve living conditions for people all over the world
- and to make the world a better place.
After World War I, the nations of the world formed the League of Nations. This organization was a place where nations could talk through their differences calmly. However, some countries like Germany, Italy and Japan ignored the League and tried to solve their problems through war. Because members of the League of Nations did not want to go to war to protect other members, the League failed and the Second World War began.
During World War II, the Allied Powers often called themselves "the United Nations" (united against the Axis Powers). After the War, the winners formed a new organization for world peace. On 25th April 1945 in San Francisco, they decided on the name 'United Nations'. The U.N. was created on 24th October 1945 and its first meeting was held in January 1946. Since 1947 the 24th of October has been called 'United Nations Day'.
The headquarters of the United Nations has served as the official headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1952. It is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan, on spacious grounds overlooking the East River.
The main building for the United Nations is in New York City in the United States of America, but the U.N. also has important offices in Geneva (Switzerland), Nairobi (Kenya) and Vienna (Austria). The U.N. tries to be peaceful, but sometimes when talks do not work the U.N., unlike the League of Nations, will fight too. In the 1950s the UN helped South Korea in a war against North Korea, and in the 1990's the U.N. helped to force Iraqi soldiers out of Kuwait. At other times, the U.N. has formed 'peacekeeping' forces. UN peacekeepers travel to troubled places in the world and try - sometimes successfully, sometimes not - to keep the peace. Today there are U.N. peacekeepers working in Afghanistan, Cyprus, Haiti, Liberia and several other countries. Through a series of goals, resolutions and declarations adopted by member nations of the United Nations, the world has a set of commitments, actions and goals to stop and reverse the spread of H.I.V. and scale up towards universal access to H.I.V. prevention, treatment, care and support services.
The United Nations has set up six "principal organs":
| UN General Assembly
- Deliberative assembly of all U.N. member states (each country has one vote) -
| UN Secretariat
- Administrative organ of the U.N. - its chairman is the UN Secretary General -
| International Court of Justice|
- Universal court for international law (based in The Hague) -
| U.N. Security Council
- For international security issues -
| U.N. Economic and Social Council
- For global economical and social affairs -
| U.N. Trusteeship Council|
- Was administering trust territories (currently not active) -
Additionally there are some so-called "special agencies of the United Nations" (this is only a selection):
- The United Nations Children's Fund (U.N.I.C.E.F.)
- The World Health Organization (W.H.O.)
- The Food and Agriculture Organization (F.A.O.)
- The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (U.N.E.S.C.O.)
- The International Labour Organization (I.L.O.)
- The International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.)
- The United Nations Environment Programme (U.N.E.P.)
- The United Nations Development Programme (U.N.D.P.)
- Welcome to the United Nations: It's Your World. Un.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- "The World Today" (PDF). http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/profile/world00.pdf. Retrieved 18 June 2009. "The designations employed and the presentation of material on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country"
- "Introduction to the United Nations". cyberschoolbus.un.org. 2011 [last update]. http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/unintro/unintro2.htm. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- Charter of the United Nations - Chapter III (Organs)