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Reichstag Berlin Germany.jpg
Brandenburger Tor abends.jpgBerliner Dom, Westfassade, Nacht, 160309, ako.jpg
Schloss Charlottenburg zur blauen Stunde.jpgBerlin-035 (cropped).jpg
Siegessäule-Berlin-Tiergarten.jpgHochhäuser am Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, 160606, ako.jpg
Panorama Gendarmenmarkt-Berlin-Huntke-2008.jpg
Flag of BerlinCoat of arms of Berlin
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Country Germany
 • BodyAbgeordnetenhaus of Berlin
 • Governing MayorMichael Müller (SPD)
 • City/State891.7 km2 (344.3 sq mi)
34 m (112 ft)
 (31 December 2019)[2]
 • City/State3,769,495
 • Urban4,473,101
 • Metro6,144,600
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Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Area code(s)Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Text' not found.
GeocodeNUTS Region: DE3
ISO 3166 codeDE-BE
Vehicle registrationBInvalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content
GRP (nominal)€155 billion (2020)[5]
GRP per capita€41,000 (2020)
HDI (2018)0.950[6]
very high · 4th of 16

Berlin (/bˈlɪn/; German: [bɛʁˈliːn] ( listen)[7]) is the capital city of Germany. It is the largest city in the European Union by population, with more than 3.7 million people.[8] The city is in the eastern part of Germany. It is about 70 km (43.50 mi) west of Poland. Berlin has an area of 891 km2 (344.02 sq mi). The rivers Havel, Dahme and Spree run through Berlin. It has an oceanic climate.

Berlin is home to many famous buildings and monuments, like the Siegessäule, the Brandenburger Tor, the Reichstag and the boulevard Unter den Linden. On the boulevard are the Humboldt University and the State Opera of Berlin. The Governing Mayor of the city is Michael Müller (SPD).

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science.[9] There are a lot of technology companies in the city. They are important for the city's economy. Many planes and trains travel to and from Berlin because the city is an important place for tourism and business.[10]

Berlin is an important city for the history of Germany. The King of Prussia and the Emperor of Germany lived in Berlin. The government of Germany was in Berlin for many years. Bombs destroyed many buildings in the city in World War Two. The city was split into West Berlin and East Berlin after World War Two. After the Berlin Wall was built in 1961 very few people were allowed to cross from East Berlin into West Berlin. The wall divided the city until 1989 when the East German government decided to allow anyone to cross, and people decided to destroy the wall.


map of the berlin boroughs

In 2001 the 23 boroughs of Berlin were changed into 12

  1. Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf
  2. Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
  3. Lichtenberg-Hohenschönhausen
  4. Marzahn-Hellersdorf
  5. Mitte (Central)
  6. Neukölln
  7. Pankow
  8. Reinickendorf
  9. Spandau
  10. Steglitz-Zehlendorf
  11. Tempelhof-Schöneberg
  12. Treptow-Köpenick



  • 1244 The first writings about a place called Berlin.
  • 1451 The Hohenzollern family moved to Berlin as the place to rule their country
  • 1618 – 48 After the Thirty Years' War in Germany, the number of people that lived in Berlin dropped to only 6000.
  • 1701 Berlin became capital of Prussia.
  • 1709 Berlin and its neighbor city Cölln (not Köln/Cologne) are combined to form the new Berlin.
  • 1806 The army of Napoleon Bonaparte moved into Berlin.
  • 1871 Berlin became capital of the German Empire.
  • 1920 The Old Berlin and some neighbour towns are combined into "Greater Berlin" (Groß-Berlin).
  • 1945 The town is divided into four sectors, used by the allies of World War II. There is a Soviet Sector, an American Sector, a British Sector and a French Sector.
  • 1949 After foundation of the two Germanies, the town is still divided. There is now West Berlin and East Berlin.
  • 1961 The Berlin Wall was built by the communist government of East Germany between the two halves of Berlin.
  • 1990 After German reunification, the Berlin Wall is torn down, and there is only one Berlin again. The new Berlin becomes the capital of one Germany.


Sister cities

Berlin has partnerships with 17 cities.[11] Each of the 12 boroughs also has their sister cities, sometimes called twin cities.



  1. "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Statistiken" (in de). 
  2. "Statistischer Bericht: Einwohnerinnen und Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. Dezember 2019" (in de). pp. 4, 10, 13, 18–22. 
  3. quoting Federal Statistics Office. "Germany: Urban Areas". 
  4. "Bevölkerungsanstieg in Berlin und Brandenburg mit nachlassender Dynamik". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. 8 February 2019. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Category handler/data' not found.Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Category handler/data' not found.[dead link]
  5. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – 1991 bis 2020". 
  6. "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab" (in en). 
  7. Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf; Mangold, Max (2015). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (7th ed.). Berlin: Duden. p. 229. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4 . 
  8. "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg - Statistiken". Retrieved 2017-06-25. 
  9. "Archived copy". 
  10. Berlin Beats Rome as Tourist Attraction as Hordes Descend. Retrieved 2017-06-25. 
  11. "Berlin's international city relations". Der Regierende Bürgermeister von Berlin, Referat IV B. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 

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