Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ] ( listen)) is a landlocked country in the south-eastern region of Central Europe, bordering the Balkans. Its capital city is Budapest. Hungary is bordered by Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Austria. The country’s official language is the Hungarian language. It has been a member of the European Union (EU) since 2018. In Hungarian, the country is called Magyarország (literally, "Hungarian country"), or Magyar Köztársaság (Hungarian Republic). This is named after the Magyar tribes who came to Hungary in the late 9th century.
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
• Prime Minister
• Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary
|Legislature||Országgyűlés (National Assembly)|
• Principality of Hungary
• Battle of Pressburg
|4–6 July 907|
|25 December 1000|
• Golden Bull of 1222
|24 April 1222|
• Battle of Mohács
|29 August 1526|
• Battle of Buda
|2 September 1686|
• Hungarian Revolution of 1848
|15 March 1848|
|20 March 1867|
|4 June 1920|
• Third Republic
|23 October 1989|
• Joined the European Union
|1 May 2004|
|Lua error in Module:Convert at line 1850: attempt to index local 'en_value' (a nil value). (108th)|
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
|Lua error in Module:Convert at line 1850: attempt to index local 'en_value' (a nil value). (103rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$283.592 billion (57th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$132.034 billion (58th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2014)||▼ 27.9|
low · 16th
|HDI (2015)|| 0.836|
very high · 43rd
|Currency||Hungarian forint (HUF)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||HU|
Medieval Hungary, 896-1526
The Magyars established Hungary in 896, after they had arrived there from their previous, Eastern European territories. Prince Árpád was their leader at the time; he also established the first royal house of the country, the Árpád-house. In 1000, after the first king, Saint Stephen had been crowned, the country became a Kingdom.
In 1241, the Mongol Empire invaded the country, causing the Hungarian king Béla IV to flee and approximately 500,000 Hungarians were killed, along with with heavy damage. In 1301, the Árpád-house died out. Later on, kings from various houses ruled over Hungary. The greatest of them is Matthias Corvinus, famous for taking Austrian terrirories like Vienna, etc. and protecting the country against Ottoman aggression. However, some decades after he had died (1490), the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent defeated the Hungarian king in the Battle of Mohács (1526). The Kingdom was cut up into three parts: the western and northern areas remained Hungary, the southern region fell under Ottoman rule, and the eastern part became an Ottoman vassal as the Principality of Transylvania.
Between 1526 and 1867
The Kingdom of Hungary became a Habsburg dependency, because an agreement made in Vienna in 1515 said that the Habsburg family would take over the territory of the Jagellion family in Bohemia and Hungary if the line of kings should die out. In 1686, the Ottomans were forced to leave, and the country was reunified. Many nationalities were living in the country at this time. Along with Hungarians, there were also the ancestors of modern Slovaks, Serbs, Romanians and Germans (known as Danube Swabians).
In 1703, Francis II Rákóczi, a Hungarian nobleman organized a revolution against the Habsburgs, as the Hungarians were not satisfied with them. However, his revolution failed in 1711, and he had to go into exile. The next most important event is the "Hungarian Revolution of 1848", when the inhabitants of the country mutinied again. Fighting ended in 1849, with Habsburg success. The leaders of the revolution were executed.
The country tried to find the way towards consolidation: in 1867, the two most important Habsburg territories, Austria and Hungary signed a treaty, and they established the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The new situation was feasible for both sides: the agreement brought massive economic growth.
Between 1918 and 1946
In 1918 after the defeat in World War I, the Kingdom was abolished, and a republic was established, as people had enough of war. This republic was short-lived, and soon the Communists seized power (1919). Their rule was irresponsible and many people, including the peasants and the intelligentsia, were tortured. The communists had to abandon the country as Romanian troops invaded.
In late 1919, the Hungarian forces, led by Admiral Miklós Horthy, finally occupied the capital, Budapest. In response to the communist terror, they launched the "White Terror", in which they persecuted the communists and their supporters. The kingdom was re-established but there was no king. Horthy was elected as the regent of the country, as the assembly decided not to recall the Habsburgs.
Hungary lost the war. According to the Treaty of Trianon (1920), Hungary lost two thirds of its territory. In the majority of these territories, non-Hungarians were the majority; however, many Hungarians also found themselves outside their country, in the nation state of Romanians or Slovaks. Thus, the main political goal of the governments under Horthy was to revise this treaty, and at least, to regain the Hungarian-inhabited lands.
Communist Hungary, 1946-1989
After the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country. So Hungary gradually became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union. After 1948, Communist leader Mátyás Rákosi established Stalinist rule in the country. He forced collectivization and a planned economy. This led to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. But the Soviets sent in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks. Nearly a quarter of a million people left the country during the brief time that the borders were open in 1956. János Kádár became leader of the communist party. In 1991 Soviet military presence in Hungary ended, and the transition to a market economy began.
Republic of Hungary, 1989 onwards
Today, Hungary is a democratic republic. Elections are held every four years.
Hungarians make up the largest part of the population but there are also several other ethnic communities. The largest of these are the Roma and Germans. Hungarian is the most widely used language in Hungary. Ethnic communities often use their own languages as well. The majority of Hungarians are religious, mainly Roman Catholic and Calvinist (in Hungarian 'református' - 'reformed'). There are Jews, often in intellectual and artistic occupations, and some Muslims. Orthodox Christianity is practised by ethnic minorities from eastern Europe.
Hungary's highest point is Kékestető (1014 m; in the northeastern part of Hungary). The River Danube, one of Europe's largest rivers, divides Hungary into a western and an eastern part. The region west of the Danube is called Transdanubia (Dunántúl). Transdanubia has a hilly landscape and many small villages and towns. The large flat area in the eastern part is the Great Plains (Alföld). Along the Slovakian border there are mountains.
Lake Balaton, Central Europe's largest lake can be found in Hungary. This small country has several thermal spas too. Lake Hévíz is one of the world's largest thermal lakes. Hungary, however, is a landlocked country (it has no coastline).
The Hungarian national anthem performed by the United States Navy Band.
The Holy Crown (Szent Korona), one of the key symbols of Hungary
A map of the lands ruled by Louis the Great in Pallas's Great Encyclopedia
Map of the lands ruled by Matthias Corvinus. Designed by Dr. Lajos Baróti.
"The Women of Eger", oil painting from 1867 commemorating the siege of Eger, a major victory against the Ottomans
Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the war of independence against Habsburg rule in 1703–1711
- "The Story Behind the Hungarian National Anthem". Jules S. Vállay. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- "2011 Hungary Census Report" (PDF). ksh.hu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-07-17. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
- ANALYSIS (10 May 2017). "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Encyclopedia Americana: Heart to India. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2006. p. 581. ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6.
- Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History. AMS Press. 1980. p. 159.
- "Hungary". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Population by type of settlement – annually". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 24 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- "Hungary". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Human Development Report 2015" (PDF). United Nations. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- "Ch7 A Short Demographic History of Hungary" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
- Findley, Carter V., and John Rothney. Twentieth Century World. sixth ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. 278.
- Bos, Stefan (29 May 2010). "Oban Become PM for Recession Hit Hungary". VOA News.com. Voice of America. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- STELLA Hungarian Archived 2022-10-03 at the Wayback Machine – free online course Hungarian for beginners (requires Macromedia Flash).