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A regent is a position of government in a country where there is a monarchy (like a king or queen). He (or she) is an "acting king", and does the job of a king where the real king is either too young, sick or cannot do what he is meant to for some other reason.
The Regency period was nine years from 1811 to 1820 in Great Britain. The future George IV of the United Kingdom was Prince Regent during the long illness of George III. He was crowned after George III's death in 1820. The Regency era was notable for its excesses, its political uncertainty, and its style. Beau Brummell, Lord Byron and the architect John Nash were important figures.