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# Georgia (country)

For the US State, please see Georgia (U.S. State)

Georgia[1]
საქართველო
Sakartvelo
Motto: Dzala ertobashia (ძალა ერთობაშია)
(English: "Strength is in Unity")
Anthem: Tavisupleba (თავისუფლება)
(English: "Freedom")
Capital
and largest city
Tbilisi
41°43′N 44°47′E﻿ / ﻿41.717°N 44.783°E
Official languages Georgian[2]
Other languages [3]
Ethnic groups (2002) 83.8% Georgian,
6.5% Azeri,
5.7% Armenian,
1.5% Russian,
2.5% others[3]
Demonym Georgian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
-  President Giorgi Margvelashvili
-  Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili
Modern Statehood
-  Independence from Russian Empire May 26, 1918
-  Independence from the Soviet Union Declared
Finalized
April 9, 1991
December 25, 1991
Area
-  69,700 km2 (120th)
26,911 sq mi
Population
-  2010 estimate 4,636,400[4] (121st)
-  Density 68.1/km2 (144th)
164.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
-  Total $22.443 billion[5] - Per capita$5,114[5]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
-  Total $11.665 billion[5] - Per capita$2,658[5]
HDI (2010) 0.698[6]
medium · 74th
Currency Lari (ლ) (GEL)
Time zone UTC (UTC+4)
-  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+4)
Drives on the right
Calling code 995
Internet TLD .ge

Georgia is a country in the Caucasus on the edge of the Black Sea. During 1991-1995 its full name was the Republic of Georgia but since 1995 it is Georgia as written in the Constitution. It used to be part of the Soviet Union, but now it is an independent republic.

## Geography

A map of Georgia

Georgia is next to the countries of Russia, Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It also has a coast on the Black Sea. It lies at the edge of Europe and Asia.

Georgia has many mountains. Its highest point is 5,048 m above sea level. The mountains running through Georgia are called the Caucasus Mountains.

The capital of Georgia is called Tbilisi.

## Culture

The population of Georgia is about 4.5 million. About 1.3 million of these live in Tbilisi. People from Georgia are called Georgians. Most of them speak Georgian as their first language, though some people also speak Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian or other languages.

The most famous person to have come from Georgia is Josef Stalin.

Most Georgians are Christians, but there are some Muslims and Jews as well.

The currency of Georgia is called the lari.

## History

The Georgians are an ancient people. Their Capital Tbilisi was founded around AD 400, after the end of the Roman Empire . Western Georgia was part of the Roman empire before then. The Arabs captured it in 635 AD. The culture continued and they flourished through trade. In the 900s Arabs were weaker and the gelorgians became their own country again. It was the major country in the region until the Mongols invaded in 1223. Georgia was part of the Mongolian empire for a century on and off until 1334, when King Giorgi V took over. In the 1500s the Persians invaded Georgia four times from 1541-1544. In 1555 the Kings of Kartli ruled through the will of the Persian shahs.

In 1783 The treaty of Georgievsk was signed between Catherine the Great of Russia and King Herekle, giving Russia the power to protect Georgia. Then, in 1798 the Persians burned Tbilisi to the ground.

From 1811 to 1918 Georgia was under the Tsar of Russia. Their culture survived intact. From 1918 to 1921 Georgia was independent, and then was part of the Soviet Union.

In 1991 Georgia declared their independence and they have been their own country ever since. There was a rough patch between 1994 and 1995 when the economy was poor, but now Georgia is a country with close ties with the United States. They are currently applying to NATO.

## References

1. "Article 1.3", Constitution of Georgia
2. "Article 8", Constitution of Georgia. In Abkhazia, also Abkhazian.
3. "CIA Factbook Georgia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
4. "Statistics Georgia". GE: Geostat. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
5. "Georgia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
6. "Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations. 2010. Retrieved November 5, 2010.