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and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|May 26, 1918|
|February 25, 1921|
|April 9, 1991|
December 25, 1991
|69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)|
• 2019 estimate
• 2014 census
|53.5/km2 (138.6/sq mi) (137th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$46.05 billion (112th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$17.83 billion (118st)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)||▼ 36.4|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.786|
high · 70th
|Currency||Lari (ლ) (GEL)|
|Time zone||UTC+4 (UTC)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC+4 (not observed)|
|ISO 3166 code||GE|
Georgia is a country in Eastern Europe. It is on the coast of the Black Sea. During 1991-1995 its full name was the Republic of Georgia. Since 1995 it is Georgia as written in the Constitution. Before, it was part of the Soviet Union, but now it is an independent republic. The capital city is Tbilisi. Its population is almost 4 million.
The Georgians are an ancient people. Their capital Tbilisi was founded around AD 400, after the end of the Roman Empire . Western Georgia was part of the Roman Empire before then. The Arabs captured it in 635 AD. The culture continued and they flourished through trade. In the 900s Arabs influence diminished in Caucasia significantly. In 1008 Kingdom of Georgia was formed. It was the major country in the region until the Mongols invaded in 1223. Georgia was part of the Mongolian empire for a century on and off until 1334, when King Giorgi V took over. In the 1400s Georgia dissolved into several principalities. In the 1500s the Persians invaded Eastern Georgia four times from 1541-1544. In 1555 the Kings of Kartli ruled through the will of the Persian Shahs.
In 1783 The treaty of Georgievsk was signed between Catherine the Great of Russia and King Heraclius II, giving Russia the power to protect Georgia. Then, in 1798 the Persians burned Tbilisi to the ground.
In 1991 Georgia declared their independence from the Soviet Union. Newly established Republic of Georgia saw bloody Civil War resulting in downfall of first-ever president of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Georgia was also involved in War in Abkhazia. There was a rough patch between 1994 and 1995 when the economy was poor, although Georgia saw significant improvements in last few years. Now Georgia is applying to NATO and European Union.
In 2008 Georgia was involved in the 2008 South Ossetia war.
|Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti||Ambrolauri||4,990||32,089||6.43|
The population of Georgia is about 4 million. About 1.2 million of these live in Tbilisi. People from Georgia are called Georgians. Most of them speak Georgian as their first language, though some people also speak Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian or other languages.
Georgians have their own unique three alphabets. They were invented by King Pharnavaz I of Iberia.
The most famous person to have come from Georgia is Josef Stalin.
The currency of Georgia is called the lari.
Joseph Stalin's Death
KGB chief Lavrentij Beria feared Stalin's next purge and like his predecessor KGB/NKVD chief Yezhov, he would be next, so he had him poisoned. It’s known that on the night of February the 28 1953, Stalin drank "fruit juice" (diluted Georgian wine). Poison, in the form of the poisonous, tasteless blood thinner warfarin (rat poison) was slipped in Stalin’s drink and caused stomach and brain hemorrhaging. Doctors were not called entire day on purpose to make sure the poison works and Stalin could not be saved. His death was recorded at 9:50 p.m. ironically exactly to the minute of signing Katyn execution orders of Polish POWs in 1940. Stalin was laid to rest in the Lenin Mausuleum but was reburied during night without any fanfare on October 31 1956. Upon Stalin’s death, Beria (also responsible for Katyn Massacre), with his network of spies and contacts, seemed poised to take over. But he fatally underestimated his opponent Khrushchev who eventually took over and executed Beria and 6 of his accomplices on December 23 1953.
- "Article 1.3", Constitution of Georgia
- "CIA Factbook Georgia". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gg.html. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- "Demographic Portal". http://database.geostat.ge/pyramid/index.php?lang=en. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
- "2014 General Population Census Main Results General Information — National Statistics Office of Georgia". http://census.ge/files/results/Census_release_ENG.pdf. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=35&pr.y=14&sy=2016&ey=2020&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=915&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=.
- "World Economic Outlook Database October 2019". https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/02/weodata/index.aspx.
- "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Georgia". World Bank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?locations=GE.
- "Human Development Report 2019" (in en) (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/2019-human-development-index-ranking. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Article 8", Constitution of Georgia . In Abkhazia, also Abkhazian.
- International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. Springer, 24 November 1979, p. 273
- Stephen White, Valentina Feklyunina. Identities and Foreign Policies in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus: The Other Europes. Springer, Oct 22, 2014 :"The Great Soviet Atlas put the entire Caucasus inside 'Europe', as far as the Turkish border with the USSR (Efremov, “Obsuzhdenie', p. 145); so did the Great Soviet Encyclopedia..."
- "Registry of Municipalities". National Agency of Public Registry. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170202020853/https://mreg.reestri.gov.ge/. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. 8 February 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3261059.stm. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- Abkhazia, S. Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Archived 3 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Civil Georgia. 28 August 2008.
- Full information about (country) Georgia (English, German, Russian, Georgian)
- Friends of Georgia (Friends of Georgia International Foundation Website, including information on History, Culture, Gastronomy, News, etc.)
- Death of Stalin AT 9:50pm, March 5 1953, removal of disgraced Joseph Stalin's body from Lenin's mausuleum; after his death people acknowledged Stalin's atrocities
- Joseph Stalin on trial, 56 years after death, Stalin's grandson loses trial on Stalin defamation publication, essentially putting Stalin himself on trial for war crimes & other crimes against humanity!!!