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Republic of Azerbaijan
Location of Azerbaijan
and largest city
|Ethnic groups||91.6% Azerbaijani |
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
4th century BC
28 May 1918
28 April 1920
from the Soviet Union
30 August 1991
18 October 1991
• Constitution of Azerbaijan adopted
12 November 1995
|86,600 km2 (33,400 sq mi) (114th)|
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
• 1999 census
|105.8/km2 (274.0/sq mi) (103rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2010)|| 0.713|
high · 67th
|Time zone||AZT (UTC+04)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||AZ|
Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan; officially called the Republic of Azerbaijan) is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It is next to Russia in the north, Georgia, Armenia, in the west, Iran in the south, and Caspian Sea on the east. Its capital city is Baku. Azerbaijan became independent from the Soviet Union when it ended in 1991.
However, because it is close and its history is related to Europe, Azerbaijan is also a member of a number of European groups, including the Council of Europe since 2001. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries. They have membership in 38 international organizations. On May 9, 2006 Azerbaijan was elected to membership in the newly made Human Rights Council by the United Nations General Assembly.
More than 90% of the people are ethnic Azerbaijanis. Minorities include Russians, Georgians and other minorities. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not say there is an official religion. But, Shia Islam, is by far the largest religion in the country, followed by Sunni Islam. There are also a small number of Christians (mainly Eastern Orthodox), Jews (mainly Ashkenazi), agnostics and atheists.
- 1 History
- 2 Biodiversity
- 3 Education
- 4 Culture
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Divisions
- 7 Economy
- 8 Related pages
- 9 References
- 10 Other websites
- See also: History of Azerbaijan
Since the early 19th century many Russians settled in Azerbaijan, but after the end of the Soviet Union with the independence of Azerbaijan which is back in control, most Russians and other minorities have left the country and are continuing to leave the country.
There are 106 species of mammals, 97 species of fish, 363 species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan. The national animal of Azerbaijan is the Karabakh horse. It is a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse native to Azerbaijan. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world. However today the horse is an endangered species.
Azerbaijan's flora is more than 4,500 species of higher plants. Due the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the flora is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other countries of the South Caucasus. About 67 percent of the species growing in the whole Caucasus can be in Azerbaijan.
Many Azerbaijanis have some form of higher education, most notably in scientific and technical subjects. According to Soviet data, 100 percent of males and females (ages nine to forty-nine) were literate (able to read) in 1970. In 2009, the literacy rate in Azerbaijan was 99.5 percent.
The culture of Azerbaijan has come about as a result of many influences. Today, Western influences, including globalized consumer culture, are strong. National traditions are well kept in the country. Some of the main parts of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, and movies.
Music and folk dances
Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that goes back nearly a thousand years. Among national musical instruments there are 14 string instruments, eight percussion instruments and six wind instruments.
Mugham, meykhana and Ashiq are some of the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan. Mugham is music with poetry and instrumental interludes. When performing Mugham, the singers have to bring their emotions into singing and music. Mugham singer Alim Qasimov is one of the five best singers of all time. Meykhana is a song with no music. It is usually done by several people. They make up the words about a particular subject. Ashiq joins poetry, storytelling, dance and vocal and instrumental music. It is as a symbol of Azerbaijani culture.
Azerbaijani architecture typically joins East and West. Many ancient treasures such as the Maiden Tower and Palace of the Shirvanshahs in the Walled City of Baku survive in modern Azerbaijan. Plans have been shown for the building of the Azerbaijan Tower. It will reportedly replace the Burj Khalifa as the tallest building in the world. The planned height is 1,050 metres (3,440 ft).
The movie industry in Azerbaijan dates back to 1898. In fact, Azerbaijan was among the first countries involved in making movies. In 1991, after Azerbaijan gained its freedom from the Soviet Union, the first Baku International Film Festival East-West was held in Baku.
The traditional food is famous for many vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes. Fresh herbs, including mint, cilantro (coriander), dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular. They are often served with main dishes on the table. National dishes show the variety of the landscape. They are based on fish from the Caspian Sea, local meat (mainly mutton and beef), and the many seasonal vegetables and greens. Saffron-rice plov is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage.
The earliest known person in Azerbaijani literature was Hasanoghlu or Pur Hasan Asfaraini. He made a divan of Persian and Turkic ghazals. Classical literature in Azerbaijani was formed in 14th century. Among the poets of this period were Gazi Burhanaddin and Haqiqi. The famed Book of Dede Korkut has two manuscripts copied in the 16th century. It is a collection of 12 stories showing the oral tradition of Oghuz nomads.
The first newspaper in Azerbaijani, Akinchi was published in 1875.
Sport in Azerbaijan is very old. Even now, both traditional and modern sports are still practiced. Freestyle wrestling has been traditionally said to be Azerbaijan's national sport. The most popular sports in Azerbaijan are football and chess. The national football team does not do well in international competitions. On March 19, 2010, Azerbaijan won the bid to host the 2012 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup.
|Ethnic composition (2009)|
Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions; 66 rayons and 77 cities. 11 cities are under the direct authority of the republic. Azerbaijan includes the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The President of Azerbaijan picks the governors of these units. The government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
Note: The cities under the direct authority of the republic in italics.
The economy of Azerbaijan is based on industry, agriculture, and on services including tourism. The energy sector based on the large reserves of crude oil and natural gas, is the main source of economic growth in Azerbaijan today, though half of the Azerbaijani people earn their income directly or indirectly through services and a third earn their income through agriculture. The energy boom has led to massive foreign direct investment and the growth rate of the Azerbaijani economy is one of the world's highest.
After gaining independence in 1991 with the end of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan made the long and difficult change from a command economy to a market economy. The government has largely completed privatization of agricultural lands and small, medium and large state-owned companies. Azerbaijan is continuing making economic reforms, and old economic ties and structures have been slowly replaced. With independence, Azerbaijan became a member of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Islamic Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Azerbaijan's currency is the Azerbaijani manat (AZN) which is divided into 100 qəpik. It became the national currency in 1992 and replaced the old Soviet ruble. The Central Bank of Azerbaijan was created in 1992. The Central Bank serves as Azerbaijan's central bank, and is responsible for printing and distributing the national currency, the Azerbaijani manat, and to control all commercial banks.
- Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918-1920)
- Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1920-1991)
- Azerbaijan at the Olympics
- Water bodies of Azerbaijan
- 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
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- Houtsma, M. Th (1993). First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936 (reprint ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9789004097964..
- Schippmann, Klaus (1989). Azerbaijan: Pre-Islamic History. Encyclopædia Iranica. pp. 221–224. ISBN 9780933273955..
- Minahan, James (1998). Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN 9780313306105..
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- "The Karabakh Horse". Karabakh Foundation. http://www.karabakhfoundation.org/pages/history-and-culture/karabakh-region/the-karabakh-horse/.
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- Azerbaijan wins the Eurovision Song Contest. BBC. May 14, 2011. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-13387886. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
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- Khanlou, Pirouz. "Baku's Architecture A Fusion of East and West". Azerbaijan International. http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/24_folder/24_articles/24_architecture.html. Retrieved Winter 1994.
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- Akhmedov, IA. "Азербайджанская кухня". Издательство "Ишыг". http://www.azeri.ru/az/cuisine/azerbaydjanskaya_kuhnya. (Russian)
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- A.Caferoglu, "Adhari(azeri)",in Encyclopedia of Islam, (new edition), Vol. 1, (Leiden, 1986)
- Michael E. Meeker, “The Dede Korkut Ethic”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Aug., 1992), 395–417.
- İlker Evrım Bınbaş,Encyclopædia Iranica, "Oguz Khan Narratives" Encyclopædia Iranica | Articles, accessed October, 2010. "The Ketāb-e Dede Qorqut, which is a collection of twelve stories reflecting the oral traditions of the Turkmens in the 15th-century eastern Anatolia, is also called Oḡuz-nāma"
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- "История нард". 1-Kalyan. http://www.1-kalyan.ru/about/art/backgammon-history/. Retrieved 2007-05-27. (in Russian)
- Нарды – игра, требующая сноровки и удачи (in Russian)
- The State Statistical Committee of the Azerbaijan Republic, The ethnic composition of the people according to the 2009 census.
- "Population". Azerbaijan Gender Information Center. Archived from the original on 2007-05-10. https://web.archive.org/web/20070510154101/http://gender-az.org/shablon_en.shtml?doc%2Fen%2Fabout%2Fcountry. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
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- "Azerbaijan – General Information". Heydar Aliyev Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070505020428/http://www.azerbaijan.az/_Economy/_GeneralInfo/_generalInfo_e.html. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
- Azerbaijan International
- Heydar Aliyev Foundation
- Azerbaijan at the Open Directory Project
- CIA World Factbook information about Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijan at University of Colorado at Boulder
- Country profile from BBC
Major government resources
- President of Azerbaijan website
- Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee
- United Nations Office in Azerbaijan
Major news media