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Western civilization or western culture is made up of Europe from Iceland to Russia, North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Zealand, and (in part) South Africa and the Philippines.
Western civilization was defined by historian Arnold Toynbee as that part of the world in which those who practice the Christian religion are in a majority. By this definition, parts of Africa would now also be part of Western civilization since many Africans have been converted to Christianity since the 1950s. The most common languages spoken in Western civilization are English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Ukrainian, Russian, and Tagalog.
- Toynbee, Arnold 1959. A study of history. Volume XI—Historical Atlas and Gazetteer. Oxford University Press. Map, page 93 “Civilization current in AD 1952” – Western civilization is shown as including the Americas, Europe, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines.