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Republic of China
Flag anthem: 中華民國國旗歌
Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
|Official languages||None designated (de jure)|
Mandarin (de facto)
Vernacular Chinese (used in formal or ceremonial occasions, religious or cultural rites, official documents, legal and court rulings and judiciary documents)
|Ethnic groups||>95% Han Taiwanese|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|1 January 1912|
|25 October 1945|
|25 December 1947|
|7 December 1949|
|16 July 1992|
|36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)|
• 2020 estimate
• 2010 census
|650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (10th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$1.403 trillion (19th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|$682.702 billion (21st)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2017)||▲ 34.1|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.916|
very high · 23rd
|Currency||New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (National Standard Time)|
|Mains electricity||110 V–60 Hz[e]|
|ISO 3166 code||TW|
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a country in East Asia. Not to be confused with the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Republic of China (Taiwan) once governed all of China (from 1911 - 1949), but relocated to the island of Taiwan following a Chinese civil war. In the years since, the PRC has become the recognized government of China (replacing the ROC at the United Nations in 1971), and the status of the ROC has been left unclear.
The region of China of Taiwan comprises the island of Taiwan plus nearby islands (Pescadores islands and parts of Fujian). Taiwan is located southeast of the People's Republic of China's mainland, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines. The capital is Taipei.
Taiwan has also been called Formosa, a Portuguese name which means "beautiful" in Portuguese.
Most people living in Taiwan (called Taiwanese) are Han. Taiwan has three large Han groups. They speak different dialects of Chinese and their ancestors came from different places: the Southern Fujianese (from China's Fujian Province), the Hakka (from China), and Mainlanders (from Mainland China after 1948).
There are also Taiwanese Aborigines who have lived in Taiwan before the Han came to live there.
- In 1517, A discovery ship of Portuguese saw this island and names it "Ilha Formosa", or "Beautiful Island" in Portuguese.
- 17th century: From 1624 until 1661 Dutch colonize the southern part of Formosa and established a colonial administration in Fort Zeelandia, and the Spanish colonize the north and established a colonial administration in Fuerte Santo Domingo or Fort Santo Domingo. The Dutch eventually defeated the Spaniards and took full control of Formosa. A Chinese general named Koxinga, defeated the Dutch at the Siege of Fort Zeelandia.
- 1860: Taiwan becomes a treaty port following the Treaty of Tientsin, opening the island to contact with the world.
- 1874: Japan invaded southern Taiwan, seemingly to "punish" the aborigines there for the murder of ship-wrecked Okinawan fishermen in 1871, but actually to establish a colony. Japanese forces withdraw later in the year after the Meiji and Qing empires nearly went to war.
- 1884-1885: Taiwan is blockaded by French navy during the Sino-Franco War.
- 1895: Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War and gave Taiwan to Japan permanently.
- 1911: The Xinhai Revolution ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.
- 1927: Start of the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) party and the Communist Party of China (CCP). The war would later be put on hold, so the two sides could fight Japan together during World War II.
- 1945: Japan lost in World War II to U.S. and gave up Taiwan permanently.
- 1947: Taiwanese widely protest governmental corruption under the Nationalists. Chiang Kai-shek sends in the army to restore order, killing tens of thousands. Some Taiwanese began the Taiwan independence movement.
- 1951: Japan signs the Treaty of San Francisco (1951) with U.S.
- 1971: Taiwan is expelled from the United Nations and replaced with the PRC
- 1979: The KMT government jails many democracy activists who opposed it (Kaohsiung Incident).
- 1986: The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is formed; it is the first party to form in the ROC other than the KMT. It remains illegal for the first year, but the KMT government does not try to ban it.
- 1987: The KMT government lifts the martial law after almost 40 years.
- 1988: Lee Teng-hui (KMT) became president after Chiang Ching-kuo is dead.
- 1995: Lee Teng-hui (KMT) became the first president elected by people.
- 2000: Li Shui-bian (DPP) became president.
- 2000: Chen Shui-bian (DPP) became president.
- 2004: Chen Shui-bian is re-elected after a controversial assassination attempt, in which many KMT-supporters believed, was staged by Chen. However, after unwillingness to cooperate about his medical records the investigation was inconclusive.
- 2008: Former president Chen Sui-bian and his wife are arrested for corruption and money laundering.
- 2008: Ma Ying-jeou (KMT) was elected as the president of the Republic of China and thus creating a change of political parties for the second time.
- 2009: Kaohsiung hosts the 2009 World Games.
- 2016: Tsai Ing-wen (DPP) was elected as the first female president of Taiwan.
- 2019: same sex marriage was legalized
Status of Taiwan
There are two Chinese governments in the world: The People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). Today, in reality, the PRC government controls mainland China, and the ROC government governs Taiwan. The ROC government governed most of China mainland from 1911 to 1949, before losing control of China mainland to the PRC. The ROC constitution still claims ownership of all of China, however in recent years this is rarely mentioned.
Although Taiwan's status prevents it from participating in some international organizations, polls show that most Taiwanese prefer to keep things as they are (referred to as the status quo), rather than declare formal independence (and risk inviting an attack by communist China), or to be "reunified" with China.
Most countries of the world recognize the People's Republic of China as China. Although Taiwan is not recognized by the UN as a sovereign nation, most countries still have close economic and cultural relations with Taiwan. Countries often set up de-facto embassies in Taiwan—officially non-government organizations—that perform the same functions as an embassy.
In 1992, the ROC and PRC agreed to a Consensus that there was only "one China" but that both sides could continue to disagree on what that meant.
In March 2004, China's government passed a law called the Anti-Secession Law. The law requires the Chinese military to invade Taiwan immediately if they declare independence. Tsai Ing-wen, the elected President of Taiwan, says Taiwan is already an independent country and does not need to declare independence.
President of communist China, President Xi Jinping, has vowed "reunification" with Taiwan by any means, including through military force. Joe Biden, President of The United States, has said that the US will defend Taiwan from Chinese attack. Australia has said they would join the USA, and Japan has indicated they may as well.
Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain). It is 3,952 meters high (12,966 ft). There are five other peaks over 3,500 meters.
The Penghu Islands are 50 km (31.1 mi) west of the main island. They have an area of 126.9 km2 (49.0 sq mi). More distant islands controlled by the Republic of China are the Kinmen, Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian. They have a total area of 180.5 km2 (69.7 sq mi). The Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the South China Sea have a total area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi). They have no permanent inhabitants.
The largest cities in Taiwan are:
|Rank||Division name||Chinese name||Type||Population|
|1||New Taipei City||新北市||Special municipality||3,903,745|
|2||Kaohsiung City||高雄市||Special municipality||2,772,461|
|3||Taichung City||臺中市 (台中市)||Special municipality||2,655,456|
|4||Taipei City||臺北市 (台北市)||Special municipality||2,635,766|
|5||Taoyuan City||桃園市||Special municipality||2,163,728|
|6||Tainan City||臺南市 (台南市)||Special municipality||1,874,724|
|7||Hsinchu City||新竹市||Provincial city||417,335|
|8||Keelung City||基隆市||Provincial city||381,770|
|9||Chiayi City||嘉義市||Provincial city||272,128|
|10||Changhua City||彰化市||County-controlled city||236,447|
|11||Pingtung City||屏東市||County-controlled city||210,275|
|12||Zhubei City||竹北市||County-controlled city||144,234|
|13||Hualien City||花蓮市||County-controlled city||108,938|
|14||Taitung City||臺東市||County-controlled city||108,648|
|15||Douliu City||斗六市||County-controlled city||107,012|
|16||Nantou City||南投市||County-controlled city||104,069|
- See Names of the Republic of China.
- Taipei is the official seat of government of the Republic of China although the Constitution of the Republic of China does not specify the de jure capital.
- Not designated but meets legal definition
- Mixed indigenous-Han ancestry is included in the figure for Han Chinese.
- 220 V is also used for high power appliances such as air conditioners
- A national language in Taiwan is legally defined as "a natural language used by an original people group of Taiwan and the Taiwan Sign Language".
- "Since the implementation of the Act Governing Principles for Editing Geographical Educational Texts (地理敎科書編審原則) in 1997, the guiding principle for all maps in geographical textbooks was that Taipei was to be marked as the capital with a label stating: "Location of the Central Government"". http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2013/12/04/2003578264/2.
- Interior minister reaffirms Taipei is ROC's capital. 5 December 2013. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2013/12/05/2003578356. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "推動雙語國家政策問題研析" (in zh). https://www.ly.gov.tw/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=6590&pid=173510.
- "法律統一用語表-常見公文用語說明" (in zh). http://oga.ncu.edu.tw/ncuoga/dispatch/doc/%E5%B8%B8%E8%A6%8B%E5%85%AC%E6%96%87%E7%94%A8%E8%AA%9E%E8%AA%AA%E6%98%8E1050106.pdf.
- "行政院第3251次院會決議" (in zh). https://www.ey.gov.tw/Page/4EC2394BE4EE9DD0/51cc88a4-2066-44da-964d-18e10468f578.
- "Indigenous Languages Development Act". https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=D0130037.
- "Hakka Basic Act". https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=D0140005.
- The Republic of China Yearbook 2016. Executive Yuan, R.O.C.. 2016. p. 10. . https://issuu.com/eyroc/docs/the_republic_of_china_yearbook_2016. Retrieved 31 May 2020. "Ethnicity: Over 95 percent Han Chinese (including Holo, Hakka and other groups originating in mainland China); 2 percent indigenous Austronesian peoples".
- "Pew Data on Taiwan religion". http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/countries/taiwan/religious_demography#/?affiliations_religion_id=0&affiliations_year=2020.
- "Taiwan". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/taiwan/.
- "TAIWAN SNAPSHOT". https://www.taiwan.gov.tw/images/content/ts.JPG.
- "Statistics from Statistical Bureau". http://eng.stat.gov.tw/point.asp?index=9.
- "General Statistical analysis report, Population and Housing Census". http://eng.stat.gov.tw/public/Data/5428162113SIDMH93P.pdf.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2020/October/weo-report?c=528,&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,LUR,LP,&sy=2019&ey=2021&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=0&sort=country&ds=.&br=1.
- "GDP: Preliminary Estimate for 2020Q4 and Outlook for 2021". Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. https://www.stat.gov.tw/public/data/dgbas03/bs4/ninews/11002/news11002.pdf.
- "Percentage share of disposable income by quintile groups of income recipients and measures of income distribution". https://win.dgbas.gov.tw/fies/doc/result/106/a11/Year17.ods.
- "國情統計通報（第 014 號）". Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (ROC). 21 January 2021. https://www.dgbas.gov.tw/public/Data/112116036FDX2D8F3.pdf.
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010. http://brussels38.icann.org/meetings/brussels2010/transcript-board-25jun10-en.txt.
- (in zh). https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=H0170143.
- Sigrid Winkler (June 2012). "Taiwan's UN Dilemma: To Be or Not To Be". The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/06/20-taiwan-un-winkler. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- John J. Tkacik, Jr.. "China's New "Anti-Secession Law" Escalates Tensions in the TaiwanStrait". The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2004/12/chinas-new-anti-secession-law-escalates-tensions-in-the-taiwan-strait. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- News, Taiwan (2020-01-16). "Tsai says Taiwan is already independent, China invasion 'very costly' | Taiwan News | 2020-01-16 09:32:00". https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3858329.
- Carlos Garcia and Yew Lun Tian (October 2021). "China's Xi vows 'reunification' with Taiwan". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/china/chinas-xi-says-reunification-with-taiwan-must-will-be-realised-2021-10-09/. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
- Trevor Hunnicutt (October 2021). "Biden says United States would come to Taiwan's defense". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/biden-says-united-states-would-come-taiwans-defense-2021-10-22/. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
- News, Taiwan (2021-10-25). "Australia will support US response if China attacks Taiwan: Australian defense chief | Taiwan News | 2021-10-25 20:54:00". https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/4325225.
- "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population". MOI Statistical Information Service. http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/month/m1-01.xls.
- "Chapter 1: Geography". The Republic of China Yearbook. Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2011. pp. 13–25. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/docs/ch01.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-01.