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Bunkyū (文久) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name") after Man'en and before Genji. This period spanned the years from February 1861 through February 1864. The reigning emperor was Kōmei-tennō (孝明天皇).
Events of the Bunkyū era
- 1861 (Bunkyu 1): Ukai Gyokusen established the first commercial photography studio (Eishin-dō) in Edo.
- 1861 (Bunkyu 1): Great comet of 1861.
- January 1862 (Bunkyū 1, 12th month): The Bonin Islands (Ogasawara Islands) were confirmed as part of Japan.
- 1862 (Bunkyū 2): The Bunkyū Reforms reduced restrictions on daimyo which had beeb ordered by Ii Naosuke.
- 14 September 1862 (Bunkyū 2, 21st day of the 8th month): Satsuma samurai killed Charles Lennox Richardson at Namamugi on the Tōkaidō road, also known as the Namamugi Incident (Namamugi Jiken).
- 22 April 1863 (Bunkyū 3, 5th day of the 3rd month): Shogun Iemochi traveled in a great procession to the capital. He had been summoned by the emperor, and he had 3,000 retainers as escort.
- 28 April 1863 (Bunkyū 3, 11th day of the 3rd month): Emperor Komei made an Imperial progress to the Kamo Shrines. He was accompanied by the shogun and many feudal lords.
- 15-17 August 1863 (Bunkyū 3, 2nd-4th of the 7th month ): British Bombardment of Kagoshima in retaliation for the death of Charles Lennox Richardson.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Bunkyū" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 91.
- Nussbaum, "Kōmei Tennō," p. 553.
- Hannavy, John. (2007). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Photography, p. 770.
- Goodsell Observatory, Carleton College. (1938). Popular Astronomy, Vol. 46, p. 142, citing Bunkiu Shinyu Suiseki
- Tanaka, Hiroyuki. "The Ogasawara Islands in Tokugawa Japan." Kaiji Shi Kenkyū (Journal of the Maritime History). No. 50, June, 1993, Tokyo: The Japan Society of the History of Maritime.
- Jansen, Marius B. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan, p. 296.
- Nussbaum, "Namamugi Jiken" at p. 694.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 325; this was the first time that a shogun had visited Heian-kyō since the visit of Tokugawa Iemitsu was in the city in Kan'ei 11 (1634)
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 325; this was the first Imperial progress since Emperor Go-Mizunoo visited Nijo Castle more than 230 years before; and no Emperor had visited Kamo since Emperor Go-Daigo honored both shrines in Kemmu 1 (1334).
- Nussbaum, "Satuei Sensō" at p. 829.
- National Diet Library, The Japanese Calendar -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
- "The procession of the Shôgun nearby Shono, in Shirasagi-zuka, Ise, at night," woodblock print by Utagawa Tsuyanaga
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