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|• Executive||Regierungsrat (7)|
|• Legislative||Kantonsrat (65)|
|• Total||243 km2 (94 sq mi)|
|• Density||216.1/km2 (559.7/sq mi)|
In 1513 Appenzell joined the Swiss confederation as the 13th canton. In 1597 the Protestant canton was divided for religious reasons from the former canton Appenzell, with the Catholic Appenzell Innerrhoden being the other half.
From the 16th century onwards linen production was established little by little. Larger textile businesses established themselves, later diversifying into weaving and embroidery. The textile industry collapsed between 1920 and 1939.
In 1834 for the first time a constitution was adapted, undergoing reforms in 1876 and 1908. The construction of numerous railway lines between 1875 and 1913 helped the local industry and the population grew to a maximum of 57,973 people in 1910 (compared with 53,200 in 2001).
In 1934 Johannes Baumann was the first citizen from Appenzell Ausserrhoden to become a federal councilor. Women's right to vote was introduced in 1972 on a local level, but only in 1989 on a canton-wide level. In 1994 for the first time two women were elected into government. The open assembly (Landsgemeinde) was abolished in 1997. The right of foreigners to vote is determined by each municipality.
The 20 municipalities are: