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Deduction is is a word with more than one meaning.

Deductive reasoning

Deduction in logic, mathematics, and epistemology is an advanced topic, and our definitions do not cover all aspects.

  • Drawing logically certain conclusions (inferences) from given premises, on the grounds that to deny the conclusion would be to deny the premise(s). Good examples occur in the works of Euclid, in which the premises are stated, followed by the reasoning, to the conclusions. Technically, "inference in which the conclusion is of no greater generality than the premises".
  • Natural deduction, an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it "naturally" occurs.

Accounting, taxation

Expenditure which may be deducted from profits before taxation.

  • Itemized deductions
  • Standard deduction