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HTML
(HyperText Markup Language)
File extension:.html, .htm
MIME type:text/html
Type code:TEXT
Uniform Type Identifier:public.html
Developed by:World Wide Web Consortium & WHATWG
Type of format:Markup language
Extended from:SGML
Extended to:XHTML
Standard(s):ISO/IEC 15445
W3C HTML 4.01
W3C HTML 5 (draft)

Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language[1] for creating a webpage. In easier words, HTML is a kind of programming language that can make a new webpage. Webpages are usually viewed in a web browser. They can include writing, links, pictures, and even sound and video. HTML is used to mark and describe each of these kinds of content so the web browser can display them correctly. HTML also adds meta information to a webpage. Meta information is usually not shown by web browsers and is data about the web page, e.g., the name of the person who created the page. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is used to style HTML elements while JavaScript is used for website behavior and also changing the HTML and CSS.

HTML is made by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). There are several versions of HTML. As of September 2018, the current standard of HTML is dubbed HTML 5 and is specifically at version 5.2.

Tags

HTML uses "elements" to let the browser know how a webpage is made of. Elements are shown as "tags" in the code, written with angle brackets: <example>. Tags usually come in pairs: an opening tag defines the start of a block of content and a closing tag defines the end of that block of content. There are many different kinds of tags, and each one has a different purpose. See Basic HTML Tags below for tag examples.

Some tags only work in certain browsers. For example, the <menuitem> tag, which is used to make something appear when the person presses the right button of the mouse, only works on the Mozilla Firefox browser.[2] Other browsers simply ignore this tag and display the writing normally. Many web page creators avoid using these "non-standard" tags because they want their pages to look the same with all browsers.

Example

Here is an example page in HTML with "Hello world!".
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>Hi!</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>Hello world!</p>
  </body>
</html>
The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page, and the text between <body> and </body> is the page content. <title>This is a title</title> defines the browser page title.

Example HTML tags

Here are some example HTML tags: [note 1]

Tag name Name Function Code Example
<!DOCTYPE> Doctype Defines the Document type
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html> HTML Defines an HTML document and starts a HTML document.
<html>All code</html>
<head> Head Contains any code that is not used to display elements on the webpage
<head></head>
<title> Title Defines the title of the webpage (shown on the tab) and is entered within the <head>
<title>Webpage</title>
<body> Body Contains the visible elements of the webpage.
<body>Html tags</body>
<h1> to <h6> Headings Headings of various sizes (<h1> being the largest)
<h1>Heading</h1>
<p> Paragraph Defines a paragraph of text
<p>TEXT</p>
<a> Anchor Creates active links to other web pages
<a href="www.domain.com">Visit our site</a>
<img> Image Displays an image on the page
<img src="ImageUrl" alt="Text displayed if image is not available">
<br> Break Inserts a single line break
Text <br> Text
 
<center> Center Moves content to the center of the page
<center>Code</center>
<script> Script Creates a script in the webpage, usually written in JavaScript
<script>alert("Hello World!")</script>

Other websites

Notes

  1. There is a full list of HTML elements here: [3]

References