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The Mughal Emperor Humayun
Fictional flag of the Mughal Empire.svg 2nd Mughal Emperor
Reign 26 December 1530 AD – 17 May 1540 AD
22 February 1555 AD– 27 January 1556 AD
Coronation 30 December 1530, Agra
Predecessor Babur
Successor Akbar
Spouse Haji Begum
Bega Begum
Hamida Banu Begum
Bigeh Begum
Miveh Jan
Shahzadi Khanum
Akbar, son

Mirza Muhammad Hakim, son
Aqiqeh Begum, daughter
Bakshi Banu Begum, daughter
Bakht-un-Nisa Begum, daughter

Father Babur
Mother Maham Begum
Born 17 March 1508(1508-03-17)
Kabul, modern-day Afghanistan
Died 27 January 1556(1556-01-27) (aged 47)
Burial Humayun's Tomb
Religion Islam

Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun (Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون; OS 7 March 1508 ADOS 17 January 1556 AD) was the second Mughal Emperor.

He ruled Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530 to 1540. He was the son of the previous emperor, Babur.

His son was Akbar, one of the most famous emperors in Mughal history.

Military campaigns

In 1532, Humayun and Sher Shah Suri clashed on the battlefield. Humayun won the battle and captured Chunar. In 1534, Humayun defeated Bahadur Shah and captured Gujrat. Sher Shah meanwhile regrouped and defeated Humayun, at Chausa in 1539 and at Kanauj the next year (1540).

Humayun was forced to go to Persia in exile, for 15 years. In 1555, Humayun returned to India and defeated the succesor of Sher Shah, Islam Shah and regained India.

War with Bahadur Shah

In 1531, Bahadur Shah Zafar overran Malwa and the next year he turned to Mewar. Humayun marched against Bahadur Shah and easily defeated his forces. Bahadur Shah fled to Ahmedabad and from there to Kathisawar.


In 1556, Humayun had a fatal fall from the stairs of his private observatory (some sources say his library). He was carrying books when his feet got caught in his robe and he tripped and fractured his head. He had bent down upon hearing the azaan (the Muslim call to prayer). All medical aid proved useless, and Humayun died. He is known as "the luckless one".