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J. R. R. Tolkien
|J. R. R. Tolkien|
|Born||John Ronald Reuel Tolkien|
3 January 1892
Bloemfontein, Orange Free State
|Died||2 September 1973 (aged 81)|
|Occupation||Author, academic, philologist, poet|
|Genres||Fantasy, high fantasy, translation, criticism|
|Notable work(s)||The Hobbit|
The Lord of the Rings
|Spouse(s)||Edith Bratt (1916–1971)|
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) was a British philologist, university professor, and writer. Tolkien is best known for his most famous works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.
He was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa but his parents were both from England. He fought in World War I, and after the war he found a job helping to produce the Oxford English Dictionary. Tolkien was very interested in languages, and he had studied at Oxford University. Soon he became a professor of English Language at the University of Leeds. He was then a professor at the University of Oxford until 1959, when he retired. He also was good friends with many other writers and scholars, most notably C. S. Lewis, who wrote the Narnia books, The Screwtape Letters, and many essays on Christian theology. Tolkien himself was a devout Catholic.
He created and worked on the fictional fantasy world of Middle-earth for most of his life, and his most famous books are set in that world. Because of his Middle-earth books he is often considered the "father of high fantasy" which made the fantasy genre very popular.
Tolkien wrote other books, for example Farmer Giles Of Ham, and also illustrated (drew the pictures and maps for) The Lord of the Rings. The Lord of the Rings was published in three parts and has been made into several motion pictures. The Lord of the Rings took 12 years to write.
Fiction and poetry
- The Hobbit or There and Back Again, ISBN 978-0-618-00221-4 (HM). (1937)
- Leaf by Niggle (1945, short story)
- Farmer Giles of Ham (1949, medieval fable)
- The Lord of the Rings (1954-1955)
- The Fellowship of the Ring: being the first part of The Lord of the Rings, ISBN 978-0-618-00222-1 (HM). (1954)
- The Two Towers: being the second part of The Lord of the Rings, ISBN 978-0-618-00223-8 (HM). (1954)
- The Return of the King: being the third part of The Lord of the Rings, ISBN 978-0-618-00224-5 (HM). (1955)
- The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (1962)
- Smith of Wootton Major (1967)
- The Road Goes Ever On (1967)
- The Silmarillion (1977)
- Unfinished Tales (1980)
- The History of Middle-earth (1983-1996)
- Bilbo's Last Song (1990)
- The Children of Húrin (2007)
- The History of The Hobbit (2007)
Academic and other works
- Biography, page 86.
- HarperCollins Tolkien Website
- Tolkien Biography (The Tolkien Society)
- The Lord of the Rings Wiki
- Tolkien Gateway Wiki
- 1952 recording of Tolkien reading part of The Two Towers (from "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit")
- The Tolkien Library - Tolkien news, articles, resource, bibliography, biography, collectors guide