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What it did
During the Cold War, the KGB actively suppressed "ideological subversion"—unorthodox political and religious ideas and the dissidents. It was Cold War policy for the KGB of the Soviet Union and the secret services of the satellite states to monitor public and private opinion, internal subversion and possible revolutionary plots in the Soviet Bloc. In supporting those Communist governments, the KGB was instrumental in crushing the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and the Prague Spring of "Socialism with a Human Face", in 1968 Czechoslovakia. A record of at least some of its doings is contained in the Mitrokin Archive.
In March 1953, Lavrenty Beria merged the MVD and the MGB into one agency—the MVD. In December of that year, Beria and six associates were executed and the MVD split. The re-formed MVD retained its police and law enforcement powers, while the second, new agency, the KGB, did the internal and external security functions, and reported to the Council of Ministers.
On 5 July 1978 the KGB was renamed as the "KGB of the Soviet Union", with its chairman holding a ministerial council seat. The KGB ended when its chief, Colonel-General Vladimir Kryuchkov, used the KGB's resources to help the August 1991 coup attempt to overthrow Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. On 23 August 1991 Colonel-General Kryuchkov was arrested, and General Vadim Bakatin was appointed KGB Chairman—and mandated to dissolve the KGB of the Soviet Union. On 6 November 1991, the KGB officially ceased to exist, although Russia's new national security organisation, the Russian Federalnaya sluzhba bezopasnosti (FSB), works in the same things that the Soviet KGB did.
Belarus is the only post-Soviet Union era country where the national security organization is still called "KGB". Belarus is where Felix Dzerzhinsky started a group called the Cheka, which was an organization in the Soviet Union before the MVD or the KGB was started.
- transliteration of "КГБ"
- Russian: Комите́т госуда́рственной безопа́сности (info • help); Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti
- Christopher Andrew. "The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the secret history of the KGB". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/a/andrew-sword.html.