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Migration is the travelling of long distances in search of a new habitat. The trigger for the migration may be local climate, local availability of food, or the season of the year. To be counted as a true migration, and not just a local dispersal, the movement should be an annual or seasonal event.
Many species in the sea have a daily migration. Plankton go up for the day where there is light, and down at night, where they are less easy to find. The many species which feed on them follow them up and down.
Migration is an evolutionary force. This is because it is a major source of natural selection. The success or failure of individual animals to make the journey is usually needed for them to reproduce.
Many parts of the world have a strongly seasonal climate. In order to survive, many species need to breed in one place and, later, eat in another place. The simplest example is the African herbivores, who follow the growth of grass in East Africa. This region has seasonal rainfall, and so it has seasonal growth of grass. Their predators follow them.
- David Attenborough (1990). The trials of life. London: Collins/BBCBooks. p. 123. .
- Baker R.R. 1978. The evolutionary ecology of animal migration. New York: Holmes & Meyer.