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Napoleon II of France




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Napoleon II
Portrait by Leopold Bucher
Emperor of the French
Disputed
Tenure 22 June 1815 – 7 July 1815
Predecessor Napoleon I
Successor Louis XVIII
as King of France and Navarre
Regent Joseph Fouché
King of Rome
Tenure 20 March 1811 – 11 April 1814
Duke of Reichstadt
Tenure 22 July 1818 – 22 July 1832
Full name
French: Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte
House Bonaparte
Father Napoleon I, Emperor of the French
Mother Archduchess Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Born 20 March 1811(1811-03-20)
Tuileries Palace, Paris, French Empire
Died 22 July 1832(1832-07-22) (aged 21)
Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austrian Empire
Burial Les Invalides, Paris, France

Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832) was the son of Napoleon and Marie Louise of Austria.

Biography

Early Life

Napoléon II was born in Paris in 1811. In 1814, Napoleon I was defeated by the Sixth Coalition and then forced to resign by his own officers. Napoleon I originally wanted Napoleon II to succeed him, but this was rejected by the coalition. Napoleon II and his mother went into exile in Austria, while Napoleon I was exiled to Elba. In 1815, Napoleon I escaped and retook control of France, but was forced to resign again after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

Emperor of the French

Napoleon was arguably the Emperor of the French in late June and early July 1815.

Life in Austria

Napoleon II as Duke of Reichstadt

Napoleon spent most of his life in Austria, where he was known as Franz. He became the Duke of Reichstadt at the age of 7 and joined the Austrian Army at the age of 12.

Napoleon enjoyed a close relationship with Princess Sophie of Bavaria. It has been claimed that he was the father of Sophie's son, the future Maximilian I of Mexico, but this is widely rejected by historians.

Death

Napoleon died of tuberculosis on July 22, 1832.

Remains

In 1940, Adolf Hitler had Napoleon's remains moved from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. His remains were buried next to his father's for some time, but were later moved to the lower church.

Legacy

Maude Adams as Napoleon II in L'Aiglon

Sources

  • Welschinger, Le roi de Rome, 1811-32, (Paris, 1897)
  • Wertheimer, The Duke of Reichstadt, (London, 1905)