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|Awarded for||Excellence in movies|
|Presented by||Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences|
|First awarded||May 16, 1929|
The Academy Awards, commonly known as the Oscars, are the best-known movie awards in the United States. The awards have been given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929. The awards ceremony takes place each year in late February or early March in Hollywood, California.
At the end of 1920s, the American film industry was in a crisis. When radio was invented, the people didn't go to the cinema. The owners of the studios had problems. They had to pay the workers for a good salary, but that was impossible at that time. Many people fought for a good salary and a good working time.
The director of the successful Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer-Studios, Louis B. Mayer met two good friends because he wanted to speak about the problem.
In the first years of the award, the trophy was called Academy Award of Merit. The godfather of the name Oscar isn't clear. It is certain, that the name was used in 1931. There may be four people, who could be the godparents. The former board secretary of the academy Margaret Herrick said: "He looks like my uncle Oscar!". Bette Davis said that he looks like my first husband Harmon "Oscar" Nelson. The film columnist Sidney Skolsky said, that he is the name giver, and the fourth person was Walt Disney.
It is said that Oscar isn't the official name of the statue. But the nickname is trademark-protected
The statue is 13 ½ inches tall and weighs 8½ pounds.
- Best Picture – since 1928
- Best Actor – since 1928
- Best Actress –since 1928
- Best Supporting Actor – since 1936
- Best Supporting Actress – since 1936
- Best Animated Feature – since 2001
- Best Art Direction – since 1928(also called Interior or Set Decoration)
- Best Cinematography – since 1928
- Costume Design – since 1948
- Directing since 1928
- Documentary Feature since 1943
- Documentary Short Subject since 1941
- Film Editing – since 1935
- Best Foreign Language Film – since 1947
- Makeup – since 1981
- Original Music Score- since 1934
- Best Song- since 1934
- Animated Short Film – since 1931
- Live Action Short Film since 1931
- Academy Award for Sound Mixing since 1930
- Best Sound Effects Editing – since 1963
- Best Visual Effects – since 1939
- Best Writing Adapted Screenplay – since 1928
- Best Writing Original Screenplay – since 1940
- Academy Award, Scientific or Technical – since 1931presented at three levels
- Best Assistant Director – 1933 to 1937
- Best Dance Direction – 1935 to 1937
- Comedy Direction – 1928 only
- Engineering Effects – 1928 only
- Academy Award for Best Original Music or Comedy Score - 1995-199
- Academy Award for Best Original Story – 1928 to 1956
- Academy Award for Best Score- Adaptation or Treatment – 1962 to 1962 and 1973
- Best Short Film - Color – 1936 and 1937
- Best Short Film - Live Action - 2 Reels – 1936 to 1956
- Short Film - Novelty – 1932 to 1935
- Best Title Writing – 1928 only
- Unique and Artistic Production – 1928 only
The most successful films
Gone with the Wind from the year 1939 was the successful film for a long time with ten Oscars. Then, in 1960, Ben-Hur got eleven Oscars. In 1998 Titanic also got eleven Oscars, so they was in tie. Six years later, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King got eleven Oscars.
The five category best picture, best director, best actor, best actress and best Original Screenplay are the most important category and they are called Big Five. It gave only three films, who got this categories: It Happened One Night, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and The Silence of the Lambs.
All About Eve und Titanic had 14 nominations. This is the nomination record.
The most successful filmworkers
Katharine Hepburn (1907–2003) has the most awards as a performer. She got 4 Oscars in the category best actress. Meryl Streep has the most nominations as performers with 17 Oscar nomination. Jack Nicholson, Daniel Day-Lewis and Walter Brennan (1894–1974) have three Academy Awards amongst men. Nicholson has also the nomination record (12 nominations). The person, who has the most Academy Awards is Walt Disney (1901–1966) with 26, including 4 Honorary Oscars and he has 37 nominations. Moreover, he won 4 awards in 1954, so he got the most awards in one year. The woman, who has the most Oscars is the costume designer Edith Head (1897–1981). She has 8 Oscars and 27 nominations. The persons, who has the most Oscars and still living are the composer Alan Menken (8 Oscars) and Dennis Muren with 8 Oscars, including 3 special prices and 15 nominations. The cartoon characters Tom and Jerry are the trick movie stars, who have the most awards.