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Stibine, also known as antimony hydride or hydrogen antimonide, is a chemical compound. Its chemical formula is SbH3. It is a covalent compound. It could be seen as having antimonide and hydrogen ions, or antimony and hydride ions.
Stibine is a colorless gas. It is very toxic. It has a bad smell like hydrogen sulfide. Its structure is similar to ammonia. It can be found in the Marsh test, a test for arsenic. Antimony is reacted with a mixture of zinc and hydrochloric acid in a tube, making stibine. The stibine is heated and a shiny area of antimony is made in the heated part of the tube.
Stibine easily decomposes into antimony and hydrogen at room temperature. This decomposition can be explosive. It burns very easily in air to make antimony trioxide and water. It can be deprotonated by very strong bases. Stibine melts at -88°C and boils at -17°C.
Stibine was first found in 1837. It was difficult to find its properties because people did not know of a good way to make it. In 1901, Alfred Stock found a good way to make this gas and found most of its properties.
Stibine is made by reacting any antimonide with a strong acid. Some antimonides react with water to make this gas. Stibine can also be made by reacting any antimony(III) compound such as antimony trioxide with any hydride.
Stibine is a highly toxic gas, similar in toxicity to phosphine. It is too unstable to be of any hazard outside the laboratory, though.