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Stoicism was a school of Hellenistic philosophy. It was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC. It concerns the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom. This philosophy claims that it is virtuous to maintain a will (a determination, prohairesis) which is in accord with nature.
Stoic doctrine was popular in Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed in 529 AD by the Emperor Justinian I, who thought their pagan character was at odds with his Christian faith.
- Antipater of Tarsus (210 BC–129 BC)
- Cato the Younger (Uticensis 94 BC–46 BC)
- Chrysippus (280 BC–204 BC)
- Cleanthes (of Assos), (330 BC–232 BC)
- Diodotus, (~120 BC–59 BC), teacher of Cicero
- Diogenes of Babylon (230 BC–150 BC)
- Epictetus (55 AD–135 AD)
- Hierocles (2nd century AD)
- Marcus Aurelius (121 AD–180 AD)
- Musonius Rufus (25 AD–100AD)
- Panaetius of Rhodes (185 BC–109 BC)
- Posidonius of Apameia (~135 BC–51 BC)
- Seneca (4 BC–65 AD)
- Zeno of Citium (332 BC–262 BC), founder of Stoicism
- Agathias, Histories, 2.31.