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Upper Egypt is a narrow strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends from modern-day Aswan to the area south of modern-day Cairo. The northern part of Upper Egypt, between El-Aiyat and Asyut is sometimes called Middle Egypt.
Upper Egypt was known as Ta Shemau  which means "the land of reeds." It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes. The first nome was roughly where modern Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih (Aphroditopolis), just to the south of Cairo.
- Ermann, Johann Peter Adolf; Hermann Grapow, eds., Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache
- The Encyclopedia Americana Grolier Incorporated, 1988
- Katheryn A. Bard, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
- Michel Chauveau, Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra: History and Society Under the Ptolemies, Cornell University Press 2000
- Ann Rosalie David, The Egyptian Kingdoms, Elsevier Phaidon 1975
- Ermann & Grapow, op.cit. Wb 5, 227.4-14
- Ermann & Grapow, op.cit. Wb 4, 477.9-11
- The Encyclopedia Americana, p.34
- Under the Ptolemies the city of Ptolemais took over the role of capital of Upper Egypt. See: Chauveau, op.cit., p.68