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Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Mar al-ʿArabiyyah
and largest city
|Abdel Fattah el-Sisi|
|Legislature||House of Representatives|
|c. 3200 BC|
• Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated
|9 July 1805|
|28 February 1922|
|18 June 1953|
|25 January 2011|
|18 January 2014|
• 2015 estimate
• 2006 census
incl. 3,901,396 abroad
|197.5/sq mi (76.3/km2) (126th)|
|ISO 3166 code||EG|
a.^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are used regionally.
b.^ De facto interim head of state.
c.^ Densities are based on 2006 population figures. The gap between arithmetic and real densities is due to the fact that 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.
Ancient Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country in the world as it used to be ruled by pharaohs. As a province of the Roman Empire, it became Christian and some Coptic Church people are there after more than a thousand years of Muslim rule. The Fatimid Caliphate ruled Egypt in the tenth through twelfth centuries. Mamlukes ruled it until 1798 when Napoleon defeated them. Muhammad Ali Pasha soon took over and started a dynasty of Khedives under the Ottoman Empire. The Empire fell apart after World War I. Egypt became an independent country in 1922 and the khedive became a king. Egypt is a member of the United Nations and the Arab League. It became a republic after the Army's revolution of 1952.
Egypt is a large country, but a large portion of it is desert. Most people (95% of Egypt's total people) live in areas around the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and along the Nile River. This includes the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan, and Port Said. Not many people live in the desert. Today, Egypt has about 90 million people.
Egypt is divided into 29 areas, called Governorates of Egypt.
Egypt is a country which has had many different rulers and many political systems. After World War II, Egypt was still ruled by a king, Farouk of Egypt (11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965). He was the last ruler of the Muhammad Ali dynasty.
Farouk was overthrown on 23 July 1952 by a military coup. The coup was led by Muhammad Naguib, and Gamal Abdel Nasser. From then on, Egypt had military rulers or rulers who had the backing of the army and many citizens.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi became President in 2014.
Revolution of 2011
In January 2011, thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo. They wanted Hosni Mubarak to leave office. He had been the President for almost 30 years. On February 11, 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman made an announcement. He said that Mubarak agreed to leave office. In 2012, Egypt had a democratic election for the post of President. The winner was the Muslim Brotherhood candidate, Mohamed Morsi.
The events which followed are still controversial, but one aspect stands out. Morsi issued a declaration that in effect gave him unlimited powers. He had the power to legislate (make laws) without legal overview by the courts. This caused widespread protests. On 3 July 2013, he was unseated by a military coup council (a coup d'état). After an election in June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi became President of Egypt. Islamist movements, such as the Muslim Brotherhood, rejected the change of regime as a military coup, and not democratic.
The official language in Egypt is Arabic. The majority speak Egyptian Arabic but many speak other dialects. Some Egyptians still speak Coptic and English. They also speak French and German in Egypt. These are taught in Egypt as additional languages.
Many famous people are from Egypt. Some of these include Omar Sharif, who was an international actor, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who was the first person from Africa to lead the United Nations, and four Nobel Prize winners: Anwar Sadat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978, Naguib Mahfouz, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988, Ahmed Zewail, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999, and Mohamed ElBaradei, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. Mohamed Salah is a famous footballer who plays for Liverpool in England. A famous Egyptian singer is called Amr Diab.
Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are divided into regions. The regions have towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital. Sometimes capital has the same name as the governorate.
Egypt is a country with an immense cultural mix. Life in the countryside differs from life in the large cities. There are differences between the families which are Muslim, and the smaller number which are Coptic Christians. There are noticeable differences in the standards of education.
Tourism is one of the most important national incomes in Egypt. In 2008, about 12 million tourists visited Egypt providing nearly $12 billion of national income to Egypt. Tourism affects the economy of the country as a whole.
There are methods of transport in Egypt. The Suez Canal carries ships of many countries.
Cairo Metro is one of the most important projects in Egypt. It consists of 3 lines. Metro is the most preferable transport in Egypt due to persistent major traffic jams in the streets of Cairo. Metro line 4 is being developed to reach the New Cairo District.
- Gupta, Kancha (15 December 2016). "President Sisi must stop Egypt from becoming just another radicalised Arab state". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/indiahome/indianews/article-4038692/President-Sisi-stop-Egypt-just-radicalised-Arab-state.html. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- "Background Note: Egypt". United States Department of State Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. 10 November 2010. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Goldschmidt, Arthur (1988). Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 5. . https://books.google.com/books?id=YmZyAAAAMAAJ&q=state. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation. For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.".
- Pierre Crabitès (1935). Ibrahim of Egypt. Routledge. p. 1. . https://books.google.com/books?id=1NbCRckI3EoC&pg=PA1. Retrieved 20 February 2014. "... on July 9, 1805, Constantinople conferred upon Muhammad Ali the pashalik of Cairo ...".
- "Population Clock". Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. 27 April 2013. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/?lang=2. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Indicators from final results of 2006 pop. Census compared with 1996 Census" (PDF). Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/ows-img2/htms/pdf/finalpop/5,7.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Hope, Christopher; Swinford, Steven (15 February 2011). "WikiLeaks: Egypt's new man at the top 'was against reform'". The Daily Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/wikileaks/8326225/WikiLeaks-Egypts-new-man-at-the-top-was-against-reform.html. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces: Constitutional Proclamation". Egypt State Information Service. 13 February 2011. http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Story.aspx?sid=53709. Retrieved 5 March 2011. "The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces shall represent it internally and externally."
- de Blij, H. J.; Murphy, Alexander B.; Fouberg, Erin H. (2006). Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture (8th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 38. .
- Namatalla, Ahmed A; Mariam Fam and Zainab Fattah (2011-02-11). Mubarak Resigns as Egyptian President. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-11/mubarak-leaves-presidency-hands-power-to-egypt-s-military-suleiman-says.html. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared", Reuters Africa. (2009-10-20)
- "Underground, Everything That Life Above Is Not", NY Times. Retrieved May 3, 2012
- "Egypt's traffic: The problem grinds on", AhramOnline. Retrieved 8 Oct 2012
- "Cairo Metro, Egypt", Railway Technology.