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The city was a Neolithic settlement and an important Etruscan center. It became a "municipium" (a type of Roman city) in the Roman Age. Volterra was attacked and controlled by Florence many times. When the Florentian Republic fell in 1530, Volterra came under the control of the Medici family. It later became part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
Important monuments and places
- Roman theatre (1st century BC), discovered in the 1950s.
- Piazza dei Priori
- Palazzo dei Priori
- Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta.
- Medicean Fortress (Maschio)
- Guarnacci Etruscan Museum