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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1559 1560 1561 – 1562 – 1563 1564 1565|
Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
- May 1 – Jean Ribault, French navigator, lands in Florida.
- September 22 – Maximilian becomes King of Bohemia.
- October – John Hawkins starts the English slave trade. He ships slaves from Sierra Leone to Hispaniola in the Caribbean.
- November 20 – Maximilian of Bohemia is elected King of the Romans.
- The Mughal Emperor Akbar conquers Malwa.
- January 13 – Mark Alexander Boyd, Scottish poet and soldier of fortune
- January 20 – Ottavio Rinuccini, Italian composer
- Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Dutch composer
- May 6 – Pietro Bernini, Italian sculptor
- July 25 – Katō Kiyomasa, Japanese samurai
- November 25 – Lope de Vega, Spanish poet and dramatist
- Isabella Andreini, Italian actress
- John Bull, English composer
- Henry Constable, English poet
- Maeda Toshinaga, Japanese nobleman
- Cornelis van Haarlem, Dutch painter
- January – Ilie II Rareş, Prince of Moldavia
- January 9 – Amago Haruhisa, Japanese samurai and warlord
- October 9 – Gabriele Falloppio, Italian anatomist
- October 13 – Claudin de Sermisy, French composer
- November 17 – Antoine de Bourbon, father of Henry IV of France
- December 6 – Jan van Scorel, Dutch painter
- December 7 – Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer
- Matteo Bandello, Italian novelist
- Nicholas Grimald, English poet and theologian