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Republic of Sierra Leone
and largest city
|Government||Unitary presidential Constitutional republic|
|Ernest Bai Koroma (APC)|
|Alhaji Samuel Sam-Sumana (APC)|
|Abel Nathaniel Bankole Stronge (APC)|
|Haja Umu Hawa Tejan-Jalloh|
|Legislature||House of Parliament of Sierra Leone|
• from the United Kingdom
|27 April 1961|
• Republic declared
|19 April 1971|
|71,740 km2 (27,700 sq mi) (119th)|
• Water (%)
|6.3 million (2008 estimate) |
• 2004 census
|79.4/km2 (205.6/sq mi) (114th1)|
|GDP (PPP)||2010 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2009 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2011)|| 0.336|
low · 180th
|Time zone||UTC+0 (GMT)|
|ISO 3166 code||SL|
1 Rank based on 2007 figures.
The country was first made as a place where freed slaves could live. From 1991 until 2000, there was a civil war in Sierra Leone between rebels and the government. The war is now over. Sierra Leone is known for its blood diamonds. These were mined and sold during the civil war. This was in order to buy the weapons for the civil war.
There are 71,740 square kilometres of land in Sierra; In terms of land area it is similar in size to Ireland.
Sierra Leone has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base. The country is among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, and a major producer of gold. The country has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is also home to the third largest natural harbour in the world. Shipping from all over the globe goes to Freetown's famous Queen Elizabeth II Quay. Despite this natural wealth, 70% of its people live in poverty.
Geography and climate
Mount Bintumani reaches 1,948 m (6,391 ft). It is the highest point in the country.
March & April are the hottest months and daytime temperatures are around 38 °C (100 °F) - 41 °C (106 °F) with a solid 82% humidity. Night time temperatures do not vary a lot and may fluctuate by 2 °C - 4 °C.
December and January are prefably the best times to visit Sierra Leone as temperatures and humidity are much lower and reasonable due to the hammattan breeze from the sahara desert, although afternoon temperatures can still climb up to 40 °C and above, the hammattan breeze stops it from getting too humid, even though it will still be hot, humidity would be can be lowered down to 39% meaning you'll sweat less during this time than you would when the climate goes back to its original state, so therefore the heat would be more endurable especially around coastal areas.
When the hammattan breeze has lowered the heat and the humidity to its base, the highest average daily temperature in December and January will only reach a maximum of 31 °C (88 °F) and night time temperatures will be 24 °C (75 °F), although it can seldomly drop down to 21 °C (70 °F) at night, and sometimes in the morning which is the lowest the temperature can get. During this time, humidity is 70% & it is pleasantly warm and enjoyable.
The rainy season from May-November, average temperatures are 27 °C (81 °F) - 29 °C (84 °F) with humidity 95% - 100%. Some days when it doesn't rain, temperatures can climb up to 32 °C (90 °F) and humidity can be moderate around 75%. Rainfall can be torrential, so if you're travelling to Sierra Leone around this time of the year, it is advisable to bring water proof clothing as it can rain for a whole week without interruption from sunlight.
The largest cities in Sierra Leone are:
Education in Sierra Leone is legally required for all children for six years. A shortage of schools and teachers has made this impossible. Two thirds of the adult population of the country are not able to read. The Sierra Leone Civil War caused the destruction of 1,270 primary schools. In 2001, 67% of all school-age children were out of school. This has been better since the end of the civil war.
Provinces and districts
The Republic of Sierra Leone has four regions the Northern Province, Southern Province, the Eastern Province and the Western Area. The first three provinces are divided into 12 districts. The districts are further divided into 149 chiefdoms.
|District||Capital||Area km2||Province||Population (2004 census)||Population (2008 estimates)|
|Bombali District||Makeni||7,985||Northern Province||408,390||424,100|
|Port Loko District||Port Loko||5,719||455,746||483,752|
|Kenema District||Kenema||6,053||Eastern Province||497,948||522,656|
|Kono District||Koidu Town||5,641||335,401|
|Bo District||Bo||5,473.6||Southern Province||463,668||527,131|
|Bonthe District||Mattru Jong||3,468||129,947||137,155|
|Western Area Urban District||Freetown||3,568||Western Area||1,272,873||1,473,873|
|Western Area Rural District||Waterloo||4,175||174,249||205,400|
Food and customs
Rice is the staple food of Sierra Leone. It is eaten at nearly every meal daily. The rice is prepared in many ways, and topped with different sauces made from some of Sierra Leone's favorite toppings. These include potato leaves, cassava leaves, crain crain, okra soup, fried fish and groundnut stew.
Along the street of towns and cities one can find snacks such as fresh mangoes, oranges, pineapple, fried plantains, ginger beer, fried potato, fried cassava with pepper sauce; small bags of popcorn or peanuts, bread, roasted corn, or skewers of grilled meat or shrimp.
The Sierra Leone national football team, popularly known as the Leone Stars, represents the country in international competitions. It has never qualified for the FIFA World Cup. They were in the 1994 and 1996 African Cup of Nations. Many of the national team footballers are celebrities across Sierra Leone. They are often well known by most of the country's general population. Some well known Sierra Leonean international footballers include Mohamed Kallon, Mohamed Bangura, Rodney Strasser, Ibrahim Teteh Bangura, Alhassan Bangura, Sheriff Suma, Mohamed Kamara, Umaru Bangura and Kei Kamara.
- "Sierra Leone". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=724&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=81&pr.y=10. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- "UN targets 'blood diamonds' trade". BBC News. 1 August 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3117421.stm. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "Sierra Leone Population below poverty line – Economy". Indexmundi.com. 9 January 2012. http://www.indexmundi.com/sierra_leone/population_below_poverty_line.html. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- 71% of Sierra Leoneans are Muslims « Oluseguntoday's Blog. Oluseguntoday.wordpress.com (13 October 2009). Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- Islam In Sierra Leone Information, Videos, Pictures and News. Rtbot.net. Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- Sama Banya wants Awareness Times to call Tom Nyuma a Buffoon. News.sl (18 April 2012). Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- LeVert, Suzanne (2006). Cultures of the World: Sierra Leone. Marshall Cavendish (published 2007). p. 7. .
- "Sierra Leone". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Human Development Report 2009 – Proportion of international migrant stocks residing in countries with very high levels of human development (%)". Hdrstats.undp.org. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/indicators/20.html. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- "Final Results 2004 population and housing census" (PDF). Statistics Sierra Leone. p. 3. http://www.daco-sl.org/encyclopedia/1_gov/1_4/Statistics%20Sierra%20Leone/ssl_final_results.pdf. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
- World Gazetteer: Bombali – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- World Gazetteer: Tonkolili – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- World Gazetteer: Kambia – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- World Gazetteer: Kenema – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- World Gazetteer: Kailahun – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- "Bo District". Sierra Leone Encyclopedia (UN and Government of Sierra Leone). July 2007. http://www.daco-sl.org/encyclopedia/3_dist/3_1a_bo.htm. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- World Gazetteer: Bo – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- World Gazetteer: Pujehun – profile of geographical entity including name variants at www.world-gazetteer.com
- Massaquoi, Rachel C. J. (2011). Foods of Sierra Leone and Other West African Countries: A Cookbook. AuthorHouse. pp. 5. . https://books.google.com/books?id=bKwN7Absx6AC&dq=sierra+leone+cuisine+%22potato+leaves%22&q=ingredients#v=snippet&q=casava%20potato%20leaves%20okra&f=false.
- Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 165. . https://books.google.com/books?id=zG1H75z0EYYC&pg=PA165&lpg=PA165&dq=%22One+uniquely+Sierra+Leonean+establishment+is+the+poyo+house%22&source=bl&ots=v0mNW1iE9r&sig=QD7niOPNKQVmUfMAyYUDWr1lmJU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=j1pBUOe7O86WhQf6zICIDg&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22One%20uniquely%20Sierra%20Leonean%20establishment%20is%20the%20poyo%20house%22&f=false.