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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||2nd century BC – 1st century BC – 1st century|
|Decades:||70s BC 60s BC 50s BC – 40s BC – 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC|
|Years:||43 BC 42 BC 41 BC – 40 BC – 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC|
Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Roman' not found. Year 40 BC was either a common year starting on Thursday, Friday or Saturday or a leap year starting on Thursday or Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Calvinus and Pollio.
- Lucius Antonius surrenders to Octavian in the Siege of Perusia
- Octavian divorces Clodia Pulchra and marries Scribonia
- Sextus Pompey captures Sardinia
- Treaty of Brundisium: The Roman Republic is divided. Gaius Octavian takes control of the Western provinces. Mark Antony is given the Eastern provinces. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus controls Hispania and Africa.
- Quintus Labienus occupies Cilicia and marches with an army into Anatolia.
- Parthians conquer Jerusalem. Hyrcanus II is removed from power.
- Herod the Great flees Jerusalem to Rome. There he is titled king of Judea by Mark Antony.
- Cleopatra Selene (d. AD 6) and Alexander Helios (d. between 29 and 25 BC), the twins of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony