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Albert Fert

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Albert Fert
Albert Fert at EP2DS 2007 in Genua PICT5745.jpg
Fert at the EP2DS 2007, Genoa
Born (1938-03-07) 7 March 1938 (age 84)
Alma materÉcole normale supérieure
Known forGiant magnetoresistive effect
AwardsWolf Prize in Physics (2006)
Japan Prize (2007)
Nobel Prize medal Nobel Prize in Physics (2007)
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversité Paris-Sud, Michigan State University

Albert Fert (born 7 March 1938) is a French physicist. He discovered giant magnetoresistance which was used to make gigabyte hard disks much easier to build. He is a professor at Université Paris-Sud in Orsay and scientific director of a laboratory called Unité mixte de recherche. The laboratory is part of the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (National Scientific Research Centre) and Thales Group. He was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with the German physicist Peter Grünberg.


Fert graduated in 1962 from the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He received his master's degree in 1963 at the University of Paris, and earned his PhD in 1970 at the Université Paris-Sud.

In 1988 Fert discovered Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in iron and chromium which began spintronics; GMR was also discovered by Peter Grünberg from the Jülich Research Centre but Peter Grünberg did not work with Fert. Since 1988, Albert Fert has helped to improve spintronics.




  • Fert, Albert. 2006. "Summary of Symposium D on "Magnetoelectronics". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 423, no. 1: 147.
  • Fert, Albert, and Shang-Fan Lee. 1996. "Theory of the Bipolar Spin Switch". Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter. 53, no. 10: 6554.
  • Fert, Albert, Jean-Luc Duvail, and Thierry Valet. 1995. "Spin Relaxation Effects in the Perpendicular Magnetoresistance of Magnetic Multilayers". Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter. 52, no. 9: 6513.
  • Fert, Albert, Jean-Marie George, Henri Jaffres, Richard Mattana, and Pierre Seneor. 2003. "The New Era of Spintronics". Europhysics News. 34, no. 6: 227.
  • Hueso, Luis E, Jose M Pruneda, Valeria Ferrari, Gavin Burnell, Jose P Valdes-Herrera, Benjamin D Simons, Peter B Littlewood, Emilio Artacho, Albert Fert, and Neil D Mathur. 2007. "Transformation of Spin Information into Large Electrical Signals Using Carbon Nanotubes". Nature. 445, no. 7126: 410.
  • Fert, Albert, Jean-Luc Duvail, Tierry Henri. 2006. "Supersymmetric Spin Information is Contained in Large Spinning Carbon Nanotubes". Europhysics Lett.. 80, no. 3: 117.
  • Levy, Peter M, and Albert Fert. 2006. "Condensed Matter: Electronic Properties, Etc. - Spin Transfer in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Hot Electrons". Physical Review Letters. 97, no. 9: 97205.

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