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Angolan Civil War

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Angolan Civil War
Part of the Cold War and the South African Border War
Date 1975–2002
Location Angola
Result MPLA military victory; transition towards a multiparty political system; dissolution of the armed forces of UNITA and FNLA; participation of these movements, as political parties, in the new political system, from 1991/92 onwards; resistance of FLEC continued beyond 2002
Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (bandeira).svg MPLA
 Cuba (until 1991)
 Soviet Union[1] (until 1989)
Supported by:
Mozambique Mozambique[2]
Algeria Algeria
Libya Libya
Republic of the Congo Congo-Brazzaville
East Germany East Germany
Flag of UNITA.svg UNITA
Bandeira da FNLA.svg FNLA
Flag of Cabinda (FLEC propose).svg FLEC
 South Africa (until 1989)
Supported by:
 United States
 People's Republic of China
 Côte d'Ivoire
Commanders and leaders
Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (bandeira).svg Agostinho Neto
Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (bandeira).svg José Eduardo dos Santos
Cuba Arnaldo Ochoa
Cuba Leopoldo Cintra
Soviet Union Konstantin Schaganovich
Flag of UNITA.svg Jonas Savimbi
Bandeira da FNLA.svg Holden Roberto
Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (bandeira).svg Angolan troops:

Cuba Cuban troops:

  • 35 000 - 37 000 (1982)[11]
  • 60,000 (1988)[11]

Soviet Union Soviet troops:

Flag of UNITA.svg UNITA militants:
  • 65,000 (1990, highest)[13]

Bandeira da FNLA.svg FNLA militants:

  • 22,000 (1975)[14]
  • 4,000-7,000 (1976)[15]

Union of South Africa South African troops:

  • 20,000 (1976)
Casualties and losses
Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (bandeira).svg Unknown

Cuba 2,077 killed,[16]
15,000 dead, wounded or missing[17]
Soviet Union 54 killed[18]

Flag of UNITA.svg Unknown

Bandeira da FNLA.svg Unknown
Union of South Africa 2,300 dead

Over 500,000 civilians killed[19]

The Angolan Civil War was a major civil war in the African country of Angola. It started in 1975 and continued until 2002. The war started right after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. The Civil War was mostly a fight for power between two former liberation movements, the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). In 2002 the MPLA won.

About 500,000 people died in the war. The war also did a lot of damage to the buildings. Because of all the damage in 2003 80% of Angolans lacked access to basic medical care, 60% lacked access to water, and 30% of Angolan children would die before the age of 5, with an overall national life expectancy of less than 40 years of age.[20]


  1. [1]
  2. Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges; Wallerstein, Immanuel Maurice (1986). The Crisis in Zaire. pp. 193–194.
  5. Sellström, Tor (2002). SWEDEN - And National Liberation in South Africa - Volume II, Solidarity and Assistance 1970-1994. p. 131
  6. W. Martin James - A Political History of the Civil War in Angola
  8. La Guerras Secretas de Fidel Castro (in Spanish)
  10. Africa South of Sahara 2004, page 66
  11. 11.0 11.1 La Guerras Secretas de Fidel Castro
  12. CHAPTER XI: Chevron-Gulf Keeps Marxist Angola Afloat
  13. [2]
  14. struggle,_civil_war,_and_intervention.html Angola-Independence Struggle, Civil War, and Intervention
  15. Political terrorism: a new guide to actors, concepts, data bases, theories and literature
  16. Fidel Castro of Africa! - Natna
  17. Bush Wars: The Road to Cuito Cuanavale
  18. Soviet Union and Russia lost 25,000 military men in foreign countries - English Pravda
  19. Madsen, Wayne (2002-05-17). "Report Alleges US Role in Angola Arms-for-Oil Scandal". CorpWatch. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
  20. Polgreen, Lydia (2003-07-30). "Angolans Come Home to 'Negative Peace'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-10.