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Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defence, is any way of fighting military aircraft in combat from the ground. Different guns and cannons have been used for this since the first military aircraft were used in World War I. They have become more powerful over the years. After World War II, Surface to Air Missiles began to be used too. Today, both are used to fight against aircraft.
Nicknames for anti-aircraft guns include AAA or triple-A, an abbreviation for anti-aircraft artillery, and flak or flack (from the German Flugabwehrkanone, aircraft defence cannon). An anti-aircraft missile is another name for a surface-to-air missile, also said SAM for short.
- Archie to SAM: A Short Operational History of Ground-Based Air Defense by Kenneth P. Werrell (book available for download)
- Japanese Antiaircraft land/vessel doctrines in 1943-44