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Temporal range: late Oligocene – Recent
|A chimpanzee, an example of a great ape|
- Hylobatidae, the gibbons and siamangs;
- Hominidae, consisting of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans.
One clear difference between monkeys and apes is that monkeys almost always have tails, but hominoids never do. There are also differences in their teeth and the way they move their arms. They have a wide degree of freedom at the shoulder joint, which helps them swing by their arms in the trees (brachiation).
The diets of apes are similar to those of other primates. They eat fruits, nuts, seeds, leaves and sometimes other animals. They are generally omnivores, though most of their intake is herbivorous.
- Groves, Colin; Wilson D.E. and Reeder D.M. (eds) 2005. Mammal species of the world. 3rd ed, Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 178-184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4 
- Goodman M. (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". Journal of Molecular Evolution 30 (3): 260–266. . . https://archive.org/details/sim_journal-of-molecular-evolution_1990-03_30_3/page/260.
- Ewen, Ewen (13 October 2008). "Loving bonobos have a carnivorous dark side". newscientist. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14926-loving-bonobos-have-a-carnivorous-dark-side#.VHXsaclWqUU.
- Hoag, Hannah (2013). "Humans are becoming more carnivorous". Nature. http://www.nature.com/news/humans-are-becoming-more-carnivorous-1.14282.