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Commonwealth of England
The Commonwealth of England was the republican government which ruled first England and then Ireland and Scotland from 1649 to 1660. After the execution of Charles I on January 30, 1649, the Commonwealth was declared (An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth) by the Rump Parliament on May 19, 1649. The government during 1653 to 1659 is properly called The Protectorate, and took the form of direct personal rule by Oliver Cromwell and, after his death, his son Richard, as Lord Protector. The term Commonwealth is, however, loosely used to describe the system of government during the whole of 1649 to 1660, the years of the English Interregnum.