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|Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|Preceded by||Oliver Cromwell|
|Succeeded by|| Charles II |
(King of England)
Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. Richard Cromwell's enemies called him Tumbledown Dick and Queen Dick.
Richard Cromwell was not suited to ruling the country. He followed his father as ruler only because he was Oliver's oldest surviving son, and people expected one of Oliver's sons to follow him. After a short time, he gave up power and he knew that many of the people wanted King Charles II to return from Holland and rule the country. When it was agreed that Charles would return, Richard thought it would be best for him to leave Britain, and he went to live in France for a while. He changed his name to "John Clarke" and travelled around Europe, not returning home for twenty years. When he came back, he lived quietly outside London for the rest of his life.
Stories about Richard
There are rumours that the nursery rhyme "Hickory Dickory Dock" is actually about Richard Cromwell's reign, since the mouse in the rhyme runs down when the clock strikes one and Cromwell only reigned for one year.[source?]
- Gaunt, Peter (2004). "Richard Cromwell". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Hutton, Ronald (1985). The Restoration: A Political and Religious History of England and Wales, 1658-1667. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- BBC Bio of Richard Cromwell
- BBC Bio of Oliver Cromwell
- Britannia.com "Monarchs" Page on Richard Cromwell
|Lord Protectorate of England, Scotland and Ireland
September 3, 1658-May 25, 1659
King Charles II
As King of England, Scotland, Ireland and France.
|Chancellor of the University of Oxford
Duke of Somerset