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{{Taxobox | name = Flowering Plants | fossil_range = Lower Cretaceous – Recent | image = Rose- Rosa Mundi.JPG | image_width = 240px | image_caption = Rosa Mundi flower | regnum = Plantae | subdivision_ranks = Classes |

Typical adaptations

[[File:Rose bud.jpg|thumb|right|150px|

Flowers, the reproductive organs of flowering plants, are the most remarkable feature distinguishing them from other seed plants. Flowers, with their colour and their nectar, act to attract pollinators, which are mostly insects and birds. Some present-day flowering plants are wind-pollinated, but that is a secondary feature.[1]p182

  • The fruit is often a way to use animals to spread the seeds far and wide. The fruit is made out of the carpel and some tissue round it. The carpel hold inside itself the ovules.
  • Sexual parts

Specialised sexual parts have led to co-evolution in fertilization and seed dispersal. The stamens, and the male and female gametophytes, have been adapted in many ways to suit particular pollinators. The small female gametophyte also allows rapid seed production, which led to annual herbaceous life-cycles.


A whole genome duplication (doubling) at 160 million years ago (mya) may have started the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering plants.[2] That event was studied by sequencing the genome of an ancient flowering plant, Amborella trichopoda.[3] Amborella, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants. Studies suggest that it has features that may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants.[4]

The earliest known fossil confidently identified as an angio, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 mya in the Lower Cretaceous.[5] Pollen probably of angio origin takes the fossil record back to about 130 mya.

The phylogeny of Angios is as follows: [6][7]

  1. Bakker, Robert T. 1986. The dinosaur heresies: new theories unlocking the mystery of the dinosaurs and their extinction. Morrow, New York.
  2. Callaway, Ewen (2013). "Shrub genome reveals secrets of flower power". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.14426 . 
  3. Keith Adams (December 2013). "Genomic Clues to the Ancestral Flowering Plant". Science 342 (6165): 1456–1457. doi:10.1126/science.1248709 . 
  4. South Pacific plant may be missing link in evolution of flowering plants — Public release date: 17-May-2006
  5. Sun G. et al 2002. url = 296 (5569): 899–904. doi:10.1126/science.1069439 . PMID 11988572 . 
  6. Angio Phylogeny Group 2003. An update of the Angio Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436 An update of the Angio Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II - 2003 - Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society - Wiley Online Library
  7. Angio phylogeny website Angio Phylogeny Website Archived 19 April 2006 at WebCite