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Giuseppe Mazzini

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Photograph of Mazzini by Domenico Lama

Giuseppe Mazzini (1805 – 1872), known as the soul of Italy, as an Italian patriot, philosopher, Freemason and politician. His efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state[2] in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century. He also helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.


Karl Marx, on an interview by R. Landor in 1871, said that Mazzini's ideas represents "nothing better than the old idea of a middle-class republic." Marx believed, especially after the Revolutions of 1848, that this middle class point of view had become reactionary and the proletariat had nothing to do with it.

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