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Islamic philosophy is philosophy that is practiced in countries where Islam has a strong influence on society. The product of Islamic philosophy is an Islamic society. Philosophy, as a "project of independent philosophical inquiry", began in Baghdad in the middle of the eighth century.
Early Islamic philosophy refers to the time period of the 8th to the 12th century. This time is often called the Islamic Golden Age. There are two main branches of philosophy, Kalam, and Falsafa. Falsafa is a word that comes from Greek; it refers to the kind of philosophy much like it was done in Ancient Greece. Kalam literally means "speech": it uses dialectic in philosophy. One of the first "discussions" was about free will, a school called "Qadar" said there was free will, another school called the Jabarites said there was not.
- Pasnau, Robert (2010). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. .