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Events of the Kaei Era
- July 1853 (Kaei 6): Commodore Matthew Perry and the United States Navy anchor off Uraga at the mouth of Tokyo Bay.
- 1854 (Kaei 7): Commodore Perry returns to Edo Bay to force Japanese agreement to the Treaty of Kanagawa. The chief Japanese negotiator was Hayashi Akira.
During the Kaei era, the shogunate bought guns and encouraged the manufacture of guns.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kaei" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 444.
- Nussbaum, "Kōmei Tennō," p. 553.
- Keene, Donald. (1999). Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era; Poetry, Drama, Criticsm, p. 393.
- Satow, Ernest Mason. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari, p. 11.
- Whitney, Willis Norton. (1885). "Notes on the history of medical progress in Japan", Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, pp. 839-843.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 323.
- Sewall, John. (1905). The Logbook of the Captain's Clerk: Adventures in the China Seas, p. lxiv; Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds, p. 178 n11.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 323; Satow, pp. 9-10.
- Masúda, Norimoto et al. (1922). Military Industries of Japan, p. 13.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
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