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The term Near East came into use in the 1890s, when European powers had to do with two critical situations in the "east". The Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 in the Far East, and the Armenian Genocide in the Near East.
British archaeologist D.G. Hogarth published The Nearer East in 1902, which helped to define the term and its extent, including Albania, Montenegro, southern Serbia and Bulgaria, Greece, Egypt, all the Ottoman lands, the entire Arabian peninsula, and western parts of Iran.
- Davidson, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign Affairs 38: p. 665–675.