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Newton's law of universal gravitation

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Statue of Isaac Newton in the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge

Newton's universal law of gravitation is a physical law that describes the attraction between two objects with mass. It is talked about in Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[1][2] The law is part of classical mechanics.

The formula is

[math]F_{g} = G \frac{m_1 m_2}{r^2},[/math]


In this equation:

  • Fg is the total gravitational force between the two objects.
  • G is the gravitational constant.
  • m1 is the mass of the first object.
  • m2 is the mass of the second object.
  • r is the distance between the centers of the objects.

In SI units, Fg is measured in newtons (N), m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg), r in metres (m), and the constant G is approximately equal to Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Gapnum' not found..[3]


  1. "Sir Isaac Newton: The Universal Law of Gravitation" (in English). Astronomy 161. Retrieved 2009124. 
  2. Cox, Brian; Forshaw, Jeff (2011). The Quantum Universe: Everything That Can Happen Does Happen. Allen Lane. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-846-14432-5 . 
  3. Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.; Taylor, Barry N. (July–September 2016). "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2014". Reviews of Modern Physics 88 (3): 035009. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035009 .