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Order of succession
The order of succession is a sequence of people and events in a specific order. It may mean the passing of royal or other powers, for example in a dynasty.
The "order of succession" may be used in a historical way, such as a list of former leaders. Also, the phrase may mean the pre-planned process through which a leader takes over from another because of death, resignation, or removal
Across the span of centuries, there have been problems with the list and order of succession after St. Peter. For example: During the Western schism in the 14th century, there was more than one pope at the same time. Each had notable international support. Only some are included on the chronology of today's list.
At that time, European leaders had to choose to support one pope or the other.
- France, Aragon, Castile and León, Cyprus, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples, and Scotland recognized the Avignon popes.
- Denmark, England, Flanders, the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, northern Italy, Ireland, Norway, Poland, and Sweden recognized the Roman popes.
Across time, there have been difficulties with the list and order of succession after Jimmu. For example: During the Nanboku-chō period in the 14th century, there was more than one emperor at the same time. Each had notable support. Only some are included in today's list
For 500 years, the Imperial chronology included Emperor Kōgon, Emperor Kōmyō, Emperor Sukō, Emperor Go-Kōgon and Emperor Go-En'yū. In the 19th century, these men were removed from the list. At the same time, Emperor Go-Murakami, Emperor Chōkei and Emperor Go-Kameyama were added.
The "order of succession" or "line of succession" is a formal plan which determines who inherits a future role or a position in a hierarchy after death or other cause creates a vacancy or an opportunity for succession.
Many countries have developed formal succession planning. In contrast, Kim Jong-il of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea selected his youngest son as the "Dear Successor" or "Great Successor". The process which led to this choice is not known.
In some countries including Sweden since 1980, the Netherlands since 1983, Norway since 1990, Belgium since 1991, Denmark since 2009, and the United Kingdom since 2015, the eldest child of a monarch is expected to become the next monarch. This is known as "full" or "equal" as primogeniture.
In the United States, the line of succession is explained in the "Presidential Succession Act of 1947". If the president cannot fullfil his duties, the Vice President is expected to take his place; and then the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is next.
- Westrin, Johan Theodor. (1910).Karl in Nordisk familjebok; retrieved 2012-1-11.
- "List of Popes," Catholic Encyclopedia (2009); retrieved 2011-12-23.
- "Western Schism," Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-12-23.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2002). "Tennō" in Japan encyclopedia, pp. 962-963.
- Nussbaum, "Nambokuchō" at p. 694.
- Oyama, Kyohei. (1997). "The Fourteenth Century in Twentieth Century Perspective," in The Origins of Japan's Medieval World: Courtiers, Clerics, Warriors, and Peasants in the Fourteenth century (Jeffrey P. Mass, ed.), p. 397.
- Kirk, Donald "Kim Jong-il's death: 4 questions about 'dear successor' Kim Jong-un," Christian Science Monitor. December 20, 2011; Harlan, Chico. "Kim Jong Il, North Korea’s ‘Dear Leader,’ dies, leaving son as successor," Washington Post. December 19, 2011; retrieved 2011-12-20.
- Branigan, Tania and Justin McCurry. "North Korea mourns Kim Jong-il and prepares for the 'great successor'," The Guardian. 20 December 2011; retrieved 2011-12-20.
- CBC/Radio-Canada, "Royal Succession," April 22, 2011; retrieved 2011-12-19.
- Bloxam, Andy and James Kirkup. "Centuries-old rule of primogeniture in Royal Family scrapped," The Telegraph. 28 October 2011; retrieved 2011-12-19.
- Presidential Succession: An Overview with Analysis of Legislation Proposed in the 109th Congress, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Order Code RL32969, June 29, 2005; retrieved 2011-12-19.