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The term gets its name from its use in the Parliamentary system of government.
In the 16th century, there were rules of order in the early British Parliaments. In the 1560s Sir Thomas Smith published a book about the procedures in the House of Commons in 1583. Early rules included
- One subject should be discussed at a time (adopted 1581)
- Personal attacks are to be avoided in debate (1604)
- Debate must be limited to the merits of the question (1610)
- Division of a question when some seem to be for one part but not the other (1640)
The Westminster parliamentary procedures are followed in several Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, and South Africa. In Canada, for example, Parliament uses [House of Commons Procedure and Practice as its primary procedural authority.
The rules of the United States Congress were developed from the parliamentary procedures used in Britain. Variations of the American parliamentary procedures are followed in many nations, including Indonesia, the Phillipines, Mexico and South Korea.
In contrast, the procedures of the Diet of Japan have moved away from the British parliamentary model. After the end of World War II, there were efforts to bring Japanese parliamentary procedures more in line with American congressional practices. In Japan, informal negotiations are more important than formal procedures.
In the US, the most widely used set of rules is Robert's Rules of Order.
- "Pariliamentary procedure" at National Association of Parliamentarians (NAP); retrieved 2013-1-11.
- Robert, Henry M. et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order, pp. xxxiii-xxxiv.
- "Parliamentary procedure" at Encyclopedia Britannica; retrieved 2013-1-11.
- Robert, p. xxxiii; Slater, Victor Louis. (2002). The Political History of Tudor and Stuart England: A Sourcebook, p. 72.
- Robert, p. xxxiv.
- House of Commons Procedure and Practice; retrieved 2013-1-11.
- Jefferson, Thomas. (1820). A manual of parliamentary practice for the use of the Senate of the United States, p. vi.
- Reischauer, Edwin O. and Marius B. Jansen. (1977). The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity, p. 250.
- Mulgan, Aurelia George. (2000). The Politics of Agriculture in Japan, p. 292.