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Photolithography is the combination of photography and lithography. Its uses include the mass printing of photographs. Microphototolithography is the use of photolithography to transfer geometric shapes on a photomask to the surface of a semiconductor wafer for making integrated circuits.
A special light-and-shadow pattern is shone onto a sheet or wafer of silicon, then the parts of the silicon that had no light on them are dissolved away by a special acid.
Memory chips have thousands or millions of identical cells. Because is much easier to make than a CPU, (a large die with a non-repetitive structure), RAM chips are far less expensive than processors.