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Stoneware is a broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature. It may or may not be glazed. It was developed after earthenware and before porcelain. Stoneware can be made from a much wider range of clays than porcelain.
Historically, reaching high temperatures was a big challenge. Lower temperatures were used for a long time. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C. This was done in primitive pit firing, but 800 °C (1,470 °F) to 1,100 °C (2,010 °F) was more typical.
As a rough guide, modern earthenwares are normally fired in a kiln at temperatures in the range of about 1,000°C (1,830 °F) to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F); stonewares at between about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F) to 1,300 °C (2,370 °F); and porcelains at between about 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) to 1,400 °C (2,550 °F).
- "Tea Bowl with "Hare’s-Fur" Glaze". Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2012-11-30. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/91.1.226. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- Clay vitrifying temperatures
- Arthur Dodd & David Murfin. Dictionary of Ceramics; 3rd edition. The Institute of Minerals, 1994.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Jasperware is unglazed stoneware
- Medley, Margaret 1989. The Chinese potter: a practical history of Chinese ceramics. p13, 3rd edition. London: Phaidon. ISBN 071482593X