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Temporal range: Lower Permian – Lower Cretaceous (non-mammalian)
|Inostrancevia, a therapsid|
The dicynodonts, now represented by a single family of large stocky herbivores, the Kannemeyeridae, and the medium-sized cynodonts (including both carnivorous and herbivorous forms), flourished worldwide, throughout the early to middle Triassic. They died out across much of Pangea before the end of the Upper Triassic, although they continued for some time longer in the wet equatorial band and the south.
At least three groups of eucynodonts survived. They appeared in the Upper Triassic. The extremely mammal-like family, the Tritylodonts, survived into the Lower Cretaceous. Another group, Morganucodon and similar animals, were mammaliaformes or the "stem-mammals" for the mammals.
- Class Synapsida
- ORDER THERAPSIDA *
- Class Mammalia
- They are not reptiles.
- Kemp T.S. 2005. The origin and evolution of mammals. Oxford University Press
- Benton M.J. 2004. Vertebrate Paleontology. 3rd ed. Blackwell, Oxford.
- Carroll R.L. 1988 Vertebrate Paleontology & Evolution. Freeman N.Y.
- Romer A.S. 1966. Vertebrate Paleontology. 3rd ed, University of Chicago Press.