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Cladistics is the method of classifying organisms into groups called clades.
A clade (Greek = branch) is a group of organisms with a common ancestor and all its descendants (and nothing else). Such a clade is monophyletic. The term 'clade' was coined by English biologist Julian Huxley.
Birds, dinosaurs, crocodiles, and all other descendants (living or extinct) of their most recent common ancestor form a clade. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single branch on the tree of life, a monophyletic group. Biological classification needs such a natural group of organisms to be put together and given a taxonomic name.
History of cladistics
The term clade was introduced in 1958 by Julian Huxley, cladistic by Cain and Harrison in 1960, and cladist (for an adherent of Hennig's school) by Mayr in 1965. Hennig referred to his own approach as phylogenetic systematics. From the time of his original formulation until the end of the 1980s cladistics remained a minority approach to classification.
In the 1990s it rapidly became the dominant method of classification in evolutionary biology. Computers made it possible to process large quantities of data about organisms and their characteristics (traits). At about the same time the development of effective sequence analysis techniques made it possible to apply cladistic methods of analysis to biochemical and molecular features of organisms as well as to anatomical ones.
For some decades in the mid to late twentieth century, a commonly used methodology was numerical taxonomy.p221 This made no attempt to resolve phylogeny, only similarities. The weakness of this approach was that it left out the connection between classification and evolution.
Phylogenetic nomenclature is a way of giving names to the groups (clades) that have been decided on by cladistic methods. It differs in many ways from Linnaean nomenclature. Critics of phylogenetic nomenclature include Ashlock, Mayr, and Williams.
|Phylogenetic Nomenclature||Linnaean Nomenclature|
|Handles arbitrarily deep trees.||Biased towards trees about 4 to 12 levels deep.|
|Primary goal is to reflect the process of evolution, as currently understood||Primary goal is to group organisms in a clear and useful way|
|Assumes that the shape of the tree will change frequently with new discoveries||New discoveries may require releveling of Genera, Classes, Orders, and Kingdoms|
|Limited to entities related by evolution or ancestry||Supports groupings when evolution or ancestry are not fully known|
|Does not include a process for naming species||Includes a process for giving unique names to species|
|Ignores established paraphyletic groups such as reptiles||Permits well-known groups such as reptiles|
|Limited to organisms that evolved by inherited traits; not applicable to hybrid organisms, or when lateral transfer has happened||Applicable to all organisms, regardless of evolutionary mechanism|
Monophyly and paraphyly
Monophyly is defined differently in evolutionary biology and cladistics. In evolutionary biology, the term monophyletic refers to a group of organisms descended from its most recent common ancestor. A monophyletic group may include all or only a part of the descendants of the common ancestor. The ancestor may be a taxon of various ranks.
In cladistics, a group that includes only some of the descendants of the ancestral species is not monophyletic but paraphyletic. The objective of cladistics is to block out monophyletic clades. Therefore, the elements of a paraphyletic group must be rearranged so that they do form one or several clades. Degree of similarity is not a criterion in grouping organisms into clades.
- Hennig, Willi 1979. Phylogenetic systematics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06814-9.
- Glossary entry "clade" Understanding Evolution. 2010. University of California Museum of Paleontology.
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- Patterson, Colin 1982. Morphological characters and homology. In Joysey, Kenneth A. & Friday A.E. (eds) Problems in phylogenetic reconstruction. Systematics Association Special Volume 21, London: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-391250-4
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- Hennig, Willi (1975), "'Cladistic analysis or cladistic classification': a reply to Ernst Mayr", Systematic Zoology 24 (2): 244–256, , . The paper to which he was responding is reprinted in Mayr, Ernst 1976. Evolution and the diversity of life: selected essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-27105-X
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- Mayr, Ernst (1974), "Cladistic analysis or cladistic classification?", Zeitschrift fűr Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionforschung 12: 94–128, http://courses.cit.cornell.edu/jdv55/teaching/systematics/mayr%2074%20-%20cladistic%20analysis%20or%20cladistic%20classification.pdf, retrieved 2010-12-14 ,
- Mayr, Ernst (1978), "Origin and history of some terms in systematic and evolutionary biology", Systematic Zoology 27 (1): 83–88,
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- Williams, P.A. (1992), "Confusion in cladism", Synthese 01: 135–132
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