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|Discovered by||S. B. Nicholson|
|Discovery time||July 30, 1938|
|Avg. distance from the center of its orbital path||23,400,000 km|
|How egg-shaped its orbit is
|How long it takes to complete an orbit||702.28 d (2.045 a)|
|Average speed||2.253 km/s|
|Angle above the reference plane
164.91° (to the ecliptic)|
167.53° (to Jupiter's equator)
|What it orbits||Jupiter|
|Size and Other Qualities|
|Average distance from its center to its surface||23 km|
|Area of its surface||~6600 km²|
|Volume inside it||~51,000 km³|
|Average density||2.6 g/cm³ (assumed)|
|Gravity at its surface||~0.017 m/s2 (0.0017 g)|
|Slowest speed able to escape into space
|How much light it reflects||0.04 (assumed)|
|Avg. surface temp.||~124 K|
Carme is a retrograde non-spherical moon of Jupiter. It was found by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Mount Wilson Observatory in California in July 1938. It is named after the mythological Carme, mother by Zeus of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.
Carme did not get its present name until 1975; before then, it was simply known as Jupiter XI. It was sometimes called "Pan" between 1955 and 1975. Note that Pan is now the name of a moon of Saturn.
It gives its name to the Carme group, made up of non-spherical retrograde moons orbiting Jupiter at a distance ranging between 23,000,000 and 24,000,000 km and at an inclination of about 165°. Its orbital elements are as of January 2000. They are changing a lot due to Solar and planetary perturbations.
- Nicholson, S. B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 50: pp. 292–293. http://adsabs.harvard.edu//full/seri/PASP./0050//0000292.000.html.
- Jacobson, R. A. (2000). "The Orbits of Outer Jovian Satellites". Astronomical Journal 120: pp. 2679-2686. .
- IAUC 2846: Satellites of Jupiter 1974 October 7 (naming the moon)
- Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia; Katherine Haramundanis (1970). Introduction to Astronomy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. .