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Carme (moon)

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Discovered by S. B. Nicholson
Discovery time July 30, 1938[1]
Avgdistance from the center of its orbital path 23,400,000 km[2]
How egg-shaped its orbit is
How long it takes to complete an orbit 702.28 d (2.045 a)[2]
Average speed 2.253 km/s
Angle above the reference plane
164.91° (to the ecliptic)
167.53° (to Jupiter's equator)[2]
What it orbits Jupiter
Size and Other Qualities
Average distance from its center to its surface 23 km
Area of its surface ~6600 km²
Volume inside it ~51,000 km³
Mass 1.3×1017 kg
Average density 2.6 g/cm³ (assumed)
Gravity at its surface ~0.017 m/s2 (0.0017 g)
Slowest speed able to escape into space
("escape velocity")
~0.028 km/s
How much light it reflects 0.04 (assumed)
Avg. surface temp. ~124 K

Carme is a retrograde non-spherical moon of Jupiter. It was found by Seth Barnes Nicholson at Mount Wilson Observatory in California in July 1938.[1] It is named after the mythological Carme, mother by Zeus of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.

Carme did not get its present name until 1975;[3] before then, it was simply known as Jupiter XI. It was sometimes called "Pan"[4] between 1955 and 1975. Note that Pan is now the name of a moon of Saturn.

It gives its name to the Carme group, made up of non-spherical retrograde moons orbiting Jupiter at a distance ranging between 23,000,000 and 24,000,000 km and at an inclination of about 165°. Its orbital elements are as of January 2000.[2] They are changing a lot due to Solar and planetary perturbations.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Nicholson, S. B. (1938). "Two New Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 50: pp. 292–293.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Jacobson, R. A. (2000). "The Orbits of Outer Jovian Satellites". Astronomical Journal 120: pp. 2679-2686. doi:10.1086/316817 .
  3. IAUC 2846: Satellites of Jupiter 1974 October 7 (naming the moon)
  4. Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia; Katherine Haramundanis (1970). Introduction to Astronomy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-134-78107-4 .

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