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Cobalt is a transition metal. It is shiny and conducts electricity. It is magnetic. It is a hard metal. It is moderately reactive. Iron is more reactive and copper is less reactive. It dissolves slowly in acids. This reaction makes hydrogen and a salt of cobalt. Cobalt is normally in its +2 oxidation state as an ion. Some chemical compounds contain cobalt ions in its +4 oxidation state. Cobalt(II) chloride is one of the most common cobalt compounds. Many cobalt compounds are blue or pink. One of them is black.
Cobalt comes in two oxidation states, +2 and +3. Most soluble cobalt compounds are red. They can also be green, blue, brown, and black.
- Cobalt(II) compounds
- Cobalt(II) chloride, red solid, most common cobalt compound
- Cobalt(II) fluoride, used in dentistry, red solid
- Cobalt(II) hydroxide, red or green-blue solid
- Cobalt(II) oxide, black solid
- Cobalt(II) sulfate, reddish solid, used in pigments
- Mixed oxidation state
- Cobalt(II,III) oxide, black solid, oxidizing agent
- Cobalt(III) compounds
Occurrence and preparation
Cobalt is too reactive to occur as a pure element in the earth. It is found in certain minerals. It is found with copper and nickel deposits. Normally the three metals are bonded to arsenic and sulfur. The majority of cobalt mining is in central Africa.
It is found as a byproduct (left over substance) when copper and nickel are produced. It is made by reaction with the sludge from copper and nickel processing.
Cobalt is used in some types of steel. It hardens the steel. It is also used to make very strong tough alloys. These alloys are known as superalloys. Some cobalt compounds are used in the lithium-ion battery. Cobalt compounds were used as an artificial food coloring until 1971. It was discovered that it has harmful effects. It is used to make glass blue. It is also used as a catalyst. It is also used in some medicines.
People need cobalt compounds in small amounts, but cobalt is toxic in large quantities. Sometimes cobalt compounds were added to beer, and people that drank it were poisoned. It can cause skin irritation when touched.